Southern Baptist dating service

Hurricane Zeta

2020.10.26 21:45 NotABotaboutIt Hurricane Zeta

Zeta is currently a Category 1 Hurricane and is expected to strengthen further before making initial landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula.

A note on the name: When we go past 21 named hurricanes in a season, we switch to the Greek alphabet. It is 21 because in the English alphabet name list we do not use Q, U, X, Y and Z. This has only happened once before, in 2005. Here's the Greek alphabet, for reference: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, Theta, Iota, Kappa, Lambda, Mu, Nu, Xi, Omicron Persei 8 , Pi, Rho, Sigma, Tau, Upsilon, Phi, Chi, Psi, Omega. You can learn more about hurricane names here.
 
 
Please look to local news, local weather, and local and state emergency management agencies to find out more about how you may be affected, if you need to evacuate, and steps on getting prepared. Please everyone stay safe.
 
U Forecasts, Predictions, and Watches/Warnings
 
Tulsa Preparedness & Planning
College students should check out their university's emergency alert system - if you're not signed up to get notices, you should!
Useful links on: hurricane preparedness, emergency kits, emergency supplies for your car.
 
Louisburg Other things worth thinking about or getting:
  • General: A cooler. Fun/mental health stuff - books, games, etc. Cash. Weather radio and batteries. Flashlights > candles. Backup cell phone, laptop, or other batteries. Extra water. Hand sanitizer. Comfort items (a toddler's blankie, the puppy's favorite toy, your grandpa's watch you can't imagine losing).
  • Specialized: Transportation and assistive devices (think especially about children, pets, the elderly, people with disabilities).
  • Cars: Gas. Window breakeseatbelt cutter.
 
Gattaca Florida Safety:
  • Check your smoke detector and carbon monoxide detector batteries!
  • Watch out for downed power lines. Never assume it is dead. Avoid it.
  • Assume floodwaters are deeper than they look. Turn around, don't drown.
  • Learn your flood and evacuation zones!
  • Food safety from the FDA and USDA.
  • If your home floods and you need to go up, head for the roof. Keep an ax in your attic to get out that way if you need it.
  • Be aware of potential 911 delays.
  • Evacuate! If you can, check on people you know to see if they need help evacuating if you can offer it or put them in touch with someone who can.
 
Hertfordshire Documentation:
  • Bring it with you.
  • Store it in a plastic bag to they are together and stay dry.
  • House deed/rental agreement/lease.
  • Insurance information (home, car, renters, medical, flood).
  • Identification (ID card/driver's license, passport, Social Security card, marriage/birth certificates).
  • Take photographs of your home before you evacuate and when you return. Good documentation of the damage may help if you need to file an aid or insurance claim.
 
For long-term preparedness, check out CERT training information.
 
Holland Evacuation
College Information
We'll be updating this list as we get information.
 
/CFB Ball Louisiana
University or College Status Source
LSU Monitoring 10/26/2020
Southern Monitoring 10/26/2020
Southeastern Louisiana Monitoring 10/26/2020
Tulane Mointoring 10/26/2020
New Orleans Monitoring 10/26/2020
Nicholls State Monitoring 10/26/2020
Loyola University New Orleans Monitoring 10/26/2020
Xavier University Louisiana Monitoring 10/26/2020
New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary Monitoring 10/26/2020
Franciscan Missionaries of Our Lady University Monitoring 10/26/2020
Dillard University Monitoring 10/26/2020
Holy Cross New Orleans Monitoring 10/26/2020
Baton Rouge CC Monitoring 10/26/2020
Northshore TCC Monitoring 10/26/2020
Fletcher TCC Monitoring 10/26/2020
Delgado CC Monitoring 10/26/2020
/CFB Ball Mississippi
University or College Status Source
To be confirmed To be confirmed To be confirmed
/CFB Ball Alabama
University or College Status Source
South Alabama Monitoring 10/26/20
University of Mobile Monitoring 10/26/20
/CFB Ball Other States
University or College Status Source
West Florida Monitoring 10/26/20
Gulf Coast State College (FL) Monitoring 10/26/20
 
Touchdown Game Information Penalty Flag
We'll be updating this list as we get information.
This list includes all games played with teams in affected states. Many may not be affected, but given the ripple effects of things like travel and the particular complications of scheduling this season, we've listed them all here for reference.
Date Time (ET) Home Team Away Team Game Location Update
10/29 7:30pm Georgia Southern South Alabama Statesboro, GA
10/31 12pm Tulane Temple New Orleans, LA
10/31 4:30 pm Auburn LSU Auburn, AL
 
Learn More
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2020.10.15 20:07 transfo47 How QAnon uses religion to lure unsuspecting Christians - CNN

https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/15/us/qanon-religion-churches/index.html
How QAnon uses religion to lure unsuspecting Christians
DANIEL BURKE OCTOBER 15, 2020
(CNN)Parker Neff was scrolling through conservative posts on Facebook when he saw an unfamiliar hashtag: #WWG1WGA. Recently retired after serving as a Southern Baptist pastor for more than 20 years, his time was free and curiosity piqued. "I started looking into it online," Neff said. "Doing some research." And with that, the 66-year-old retiree, and soon his wife, Sharon, fell down one of the internet's most dangerous rabbit holes. It didn't take long for Neff to find the hashtag's meaning. "Where We Go One We Go All" is one of several mottoes of QAnon, a collective of online conspiracists. The pastor and his wife, who live in Arcola, Mississippi, began watching the vast collection of QAnon videos posted online by "researchers" who decipher the cryptic messages of "Q," an anonymous online persona who claims to have access to classified military and intelligence operations. Since its inception in 2017 QAnon has quickly metastasized, infiltrating American politics, internet culture and now -- religion. A woman holds up a QAnon sign at a President Trump campaign rally on September 22, 2020, in Moon Township, Pennsylvania. According to QAnon, President Donald Trump is secretly working to stop a child sex cabal run by Hollywood and political elites who will one day be revealed during an apocalyptic event known as The Storm. During the pandemic, QAnon-related content has exploded online, growing nearly 175% on Facebook and nearly 63% on Twitter, according a British think tank. Although QAnon's conspiracy theories are baseless -- they allege that a famous actor is secret sex trafficker and a leading Democrat participated in Satanic rituals -- the dangers the movement poses are very real. The FBI has called QAnon a domestic terror threat and an internal FBI memo warned that "fringe conspiracy theories very likely motivate some domestic extremists, wholly or in part, to commit criminal and sometimes violent activity." Facebook finally pledged to ban QAnon content earlier this month. "Right now QAnon is still on the fringes of evangelicalism," said Ed Stetzer, an evangelical pastor and dean at Wheaton College in Illinois who wrote a recent column warning Christians about QAnon. "But we have a pretty big fringe. "Pastors need to be more aware of the danger and they need tools to address it," he told CNN. "People are being misled by social media." Some Christian pastors are actually leading their followers to QAnon, or at least introducing them to its dubious conspiracy theories.
During services in July, Rock Urban Church in Grandville, Michigan, played a discredited video that supports QAnon conspiracy theories. "The country is being torn apart by the biggest political hoax and coordinated mass media disinformation campaign in living history — you may know it as COVID-19," the video says. The church did not answer requests for comment and has removed the video from its YouTube channel.
Pastor John MacArthur of California, an influential evangelical who is battling county officials over the right to continue indoor services at his Grace Community Church, espoused a theme popular in QAnon circles when he misinterpreted CDC data and informed his congregation that "there is no pandemic." MacArthur declined CNN's request for comment.
There's even a movement, led by the Indiana-based Omega Kingdom Ministry, to merge QAnon and Christianity -- with texts from both the Bible and Q read at church services.
"If you are just learning about QAnon and The Great Awakening, this is the right spot for you," reads the ministry's website. Representatives from the ministry did not respond to multiple requests for comment. Paul Anleitner, an evangelical pastor in Minneapolis, said he's seen worrying examples of conservative Christians preaching from QAnon's bible: Pastors warning about the "Deep State," congregants trading conspiracy theories during Bible studies, and, most concerning to him, unsuspecting Christians lured to QAnon through respected church leaders. "I see this circulating through conservative and Charismatic churches and it breaks my heart," said Anleitner, who spent time in Pentecostal churches, where he says QAnon's influence is distressingly pervasive. "It's pulling families apart, pulling people away from the gospel and creating distrust among people searching for the truth." Earlier this year a young Christian friend of his recirculated QAnon ideas posted online by a national Christian leader, Anleitner said. (He declined to name the pastor on the record). "I reached out to my friend and told him the stuff he posted came directly from QAnon," said Anleitner. "He had no idea." QAnon is complex, said Brian Friedberg, a researcher at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government who has studied the movement. It churns out an almost endless stream of content, from memes to anti-Semitic tropes to Christian Scripture. From its anonymous message board, the dubious ideas circulate through social media, sometimes finding their way into the Twitter feed of Trump and his allies, who have repeatedly boosted QAnon accounts. In QAnon, some observers see a mass delusion, others see a political cult, and still others claim to see the sprouts of a new faith. According to the religious view of QAnon, Q is a postmodern prophet, "Q drops" (aka his messages) are sacred texts and Trump is a messianic figure who will conjure "The Storm," an apocalyptic revelation exposing evildoers. If QAnon is a new religion, it bears the birthmarks of our truth-deprived time: Born on an obscure internet image board, it spreads through social media, preaches a perverted form of populism and is amplified by a president who has demonstrated little regard for facts. But in Mississippi, the Neffs said they see QAnon as a source of "behind the scenes" information -- not as a religion. "It's kinda like checking Fox News or CNN," -- that is, a place to find the latest news, said Park Neff, who has a masters in divinity and a doctorate from New Orleans Baptist Seminary. "It just seemed to be good, solid conservative thought." Like her husband, Sharon Neff said she saw no contradictions between QAnon and Christianity. Instead, she saw important connections, as did many of her friends and fellow church members. "What resonated with me is the idea of moving toward a global government," she said, "and that actually goes along with the Christian belief about the End Times." It interprets world events through the lens of Scripture or Q posts. It's obsessed with a grand, apocalyptic Reckoning that will separate good from evil, deeply distrusts the media and finds an unlikely champion -- and hero -- in President Trump. Neff also said she likes that Q quotes Christian scripture extensively and claims to be exposing child trafficking, a problem that she said she and other Southern Baptist women have been fighting for years. That's no accident, say experts who have studied QAnon. The group intentionally uses emotionally fraught topics, like suffering children, to draw Christians to their movement. "That's a recruiting tactic," said Travis View, a host of "QAnon Anonymous," a podcast that seeks to explain the movement. "It's their red pill." (Travis View is a pseudonym he uses for safety. ) View compared it a religion that proselytizes by offering potential converts seemingly mundane services before laying the hard sell on them. "People who start with 'saving the children' don't stay there -- and that's the problem," he said. "It's like Alice in Wonderland. They follow the rabbit and enter a totally different framework for reality." Friedberg said he sees elements of his experience as a young evangelical in the QAnon movement: Its seamless blend of Christianity and nationalism, its promise of spiritual knowledge and the primacy of scripture, and, finally, the desire to evangelize to friends and family. "This is an information operation that has gotten out of the direct control of whoever started it," he said. It's an operation, he added, that likely would not exist in a less polarized, confusing and frightening time. Under somewhat similar strains, a group of 1840s Baptists called the Millerites predicted the Second Coming of Jesus. When Jesus didn't arrive, the Millerites were greatly disappointed, but they adjusted their apocalyptic timetables and soldiered on, eventually becoming the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Travis View said he sees echoes of the Millerites in QAnon. Numerous QAnon "prophecies" have proven false. Hillary Clinton was not arrested in 2017, Republicans didn't rout Democrats during the 2018 midterm elections and Trump has not imprisoned his political enemies at Guantanamo Bay. These days, Q shies away from giving specific dates, View noted, suggesting a shift in tactics. Even so, believers attempt to explain away any contradictions between QAnon and reality, just as the Millerites did centuries ago. "Some of it seems like deliberate misinformation to throw off the other side," Neff said, "as should be apparent to anyone who watches the news. Sometimes he (Q) does it to rattle their cages, sometimes to keep them guessing. It seems to work." Meanwhile, Neff, like many interested in QAnon, looks forward to the Great Awakening. The pastor said it won't be like the other Great Awakenings, the religious revivals that torched through early America. It will start when the prevailing evil in our government is finally revealed, he said, and end with Trump validated and all the bad people jailed on an island far, far away.

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2020.10.08 18:37 ADHDin4K My Story. No tl;dr here. My hope is that you will read the whole thing

Friends,
I pray that this finds you well. You don't know me. For that matter, I don't know you either. What I do know is the love of the Messiah, and it is evident that you do as well. What a friend we have in Jesus then, who allows us to be fully known to each other through a similar calling, to minister and bring the gospel to those outside the gates - the rejected, marginalized, excommunicated and hurting - those who would be called an abomination by some who seek to claim God and Jesus for themselves, while ignoring the weightier matters of the Torah - justice, mercy, and trust.
I only recently became aware of you, and I am moved to reach out to you. In writing this brief overview of my story, I am hoping to generate a discussion and allyship, because I have seen and experienced firsthand the destructive nature of the "traditional" theology in the lives of LGBTQ believers, myself being one of them. I do not believe that I need to go into much detail about these things, since what has been made clear to me is clear to you as well.
I am a thirty something lesbian transwoman from Texas (read - I have that double gay). I was raised in a traditional southern baptist home, and I came to know Yeshua as my savior at the ripe old age of 5, while listening to Billy Graham on the TV. By that point in my life, I was already in the throes of being refined into the missional nature of God's calling on my life, even though it would take another 25 years for me to understand what that might look like, and three more after that for me to fully submit to it. I was just two years old when my parents separated, and 4 when they were divorced. At the time, and indeed into my twenties, I blamed myself for that, despite my mom’s courageous effort to the contrary. My dad disappeared out of my life, only making himself present when it was beneficial to him. He passed away in 2017, and I am pretty sure he didn't make it into the kingdom, but I remain hopeful that I am wrong about that. Being raised by a single mother, I knew early that the church, while caring for her and I, didn't condone their divorce. I have witnessed and shared in the shame and disgust that she struggled with until the day my dad passed. So when I fully came out, and began my transition, I experienced the typical "there was a disconnect in your childhood that gave you over to a propensity to sin" argument, and it hurt. It hurt to be told that being trans was a product of "sinful" parents, and that there was absolutely no way for me to be God fearing unless I abandoned the things which certain people considered to be sinful, and stopped acting contrary to nature. For reasons that would become known to me later, this didn't sit right.
A great many things have happened in my life, and my filters through which I view the world have been shaped through these experiences. My parents’ divorce was one of those. I didn't know how to quantify it at the time, but reflecting on my childhood there were indicators that I was trans. I used to pray to wake up a female as a young child. I always knew I was different, but I had no idea how to tell anyone that I felt like my body was incongruent with my mind, and how much it hurt to look in the mirror and know that I was different from other girls. Add to this that my mom and I were living in a community where I was the only white kid in my elementary school. It was a recipe for disaster already. My mom, in a valiant attempt to introduce me to positive male role models, unaware of my secret struggles, enrolled me in the boy scouts. I was about 10 years old when I was raped by my tent mate at boy scout camp. It would take another 20 something years for me to work through that alone and by the grace of God I have been able to overcome the damage caused by that and forgive my rapist.
Sometime around the age of 12, I came out for the first time to my mom. It was 1999, and I was beginning to understand that my mind and physical body were not in alignment with each other. I sat down with her one night and cried and told her the truth, that I felt like I wasn’t a boy, but a girl. I confessed to her that I knew this was sin, and would surely be sent to hell for it, and I just wanted to be normal. She did the best she could at the time, and consoled me, cried with me, and for the first time told me that she wasn't sure that my feelings were sinful. At the time, the best information and wisdom that we could seek were available at the church, and so that's where I went, especially since my struggle was with so-called sin. We were attending and active in the drama ministry at our church, I was active in my youth group, and on fire for the Lord. At a Wednesday youth service, I met with my youth pastor and confessed my truth. As you can imagine, I was bible thumped right back into the closet that I had just come out of. I won't mention his name, because I have yet to have the opportunity to communicate with him my forgiveness for his reaction, but I am eagerly awaiting the chance to do so.
In the years that followed, I attempted to do what most of us have done. I escaped into hyper-masculinity, and fervently tried to "pray the gay away". I started lifting weights, playing football, and every other masculine thing I could think of. I even joined FFA, tried my hardest to become an “all American man”, and adopted the racist, misogynistic, bigoted views of my new "friends". (Note- I wasn’t raised this way, nor does God condone this behavior. I was acting out of phobic views for myself. I ask for forgiveness from my family in Christ who have been directly or indirectly harmed by my actions and supposed views, and I have repented of these things.) During this time, I secretly explored my sexuality, and began walking away from God. Even though I never denied Him as my savior, I might as well have by the way living. I continued to struggle with what I termed at the time "cross-dressing" ( I don’t care for this term anymore, because it sexualizes and fetishizes trans people) since there wasn’t a better term for it. I indulged in the excess of life, without much regard for the kind of damage I was doing to my soul, and God's heart. As I progressed though my late teens and twenties, I abused both drugs and alcohol, often to the detriment to those around me, and to myself even though I didn't know it.
I was 21 when my first child, a daughter, was born out of wedlock. I was in a toxic relationship, and the pregnancy was purely unintentional on our behalf. Neither of us wanted a child at the time, however due only to God's grace we didn't abort her. (Note 2 – I fully support a woman’s right to choose, and I believe that the government should have no say in what we as humans do with our bodies.) I am so thankful for His intervention in this, since that was a viable option at the time, and could very well have been the outcome. We separated and decided that the best thing we could do was to raise her to understand how she came to be, and that it was much better for everyone if her mom and I weren't together.
I was working on a geotechnical research vessel in Mexico when I felt the call on my life to become a firefighter. So, at 23, I left the oilfield behind and began my journey to be obedient to this calling. I attended fire academy and EMT school (both are required to be a certified professional firefighter in Texas) and graduated with a 4.0 gpa at the top of my class. Please bear in mind that my secret struggle reared its ugly head in my life the ENTIRE time. I was able to keep it secret though, because since the first bible beating, I was determined to keep my struggles a secret. I carefully crafted this "all American man" image over years and was able to keep it up through cleverly contrived myths and lies, to everyone, including myself. In 2013 I met my now ex-wife and began dating her, and we were quickly in love, and married in 2014. This is where it gets interesting, and I believe the moment that God began actively working me and shaping me into the woman I am today.
Before we were married, and for the first time since I was 12, I confided in another human about my secret. To my surprise, she encouraged me to explore this side of myself. I actually remember praying that God would bring me a woman who would accept me for who I was, so when she did, I instantly (and wrongly, as I would later find out) believed that I was supposed to spend my life with her. Even though on the surface we were the average cis-heterosexual married couple, we were anything but behind closed doors. Shortly after we were married, we experienced two miscarriages back to back. I didn't know any better, but our relationship was toxic and destructive for both of us from the outset. In 2015, we attended a marriage retreat for firefighter couples, and it was there that she confessed to me that it was her desire to open up our marriage to a third party. Since she was so accepting of my secret, I felt like I needed to reciprocate, even though it made me angry and jealous on the inside. This same weekend, we got pregnant with our son, who was born premature in February of 2016. We stayed married, and tried our hardest to keep up appearances, even though we led a secret life. Both of us were so well versed in hiding ourselves by this point, it came almost naturally.
Fast forward to July 31, 2017. The date is burned in my mind because that is when everything changed. I was serving as a Driveoperator in the fire department(it was a full time career for me, not volunteer), and part of that role was to "ride-up" or take the place of the station lieutenant in their absence. It was a day like any other, I left for work about 4:30 am, and we had our usual fight that morning, which had become the norm. I arrived at work, tried to put it behind me, and began my duties that day as an acting LT. About noon, we were called to a house fire in a neighboring territory, on a 2nd alarm - a call for more resources. We arrived and quickly fell into our roles on the fireground. This story in and of itself would probably take me an hour to tell, so for the sake of being brief, I'll get to the moment where I came as close to death as I have ever come. About two hours into fighting the fire, I was in command of the crews operating on the 2nd floor of the house when the building collapsed around us. I was hit by a roof beam and knocked down the stairs, dislocating my shoulder and breaking my nose. This is where I must stop and proclaim the mercy of the living God. Had that beam hit me just a few inches to the right, I would not be here today. I am convinced in that moment God spared me, and my colleagues. Mercifully, I was the only one injured out of about 6 of us present when the collapse happened.
During my recovery, I attempted suicide three separate times, and became heavily addicted to marijuana and amphetamines. I have since been healed of these things, and I am happy to go into more detail about any specifics of my life with you at another time. I am only briefly touching on them here so that you can have an accurate understanding of the thick mire of death that God himself reached down and plucked me out of.
In order to tie all this together, it was during my recovery that God began leading me down the path that would eventually lead me to this story that I am writing to you today. I began to question the position of the church about people like me, since the "official" stance didn't include one critical point. It failed to consider those of us who were already believers. As I began to come out, and lead a double life, my ex and I drifted apart, separated, and divorced. I came out for the second time to my mom, but this time she was determined to see my through this journey, as I was determined to see it through myself, understanding that we are absolutely forgiven of our sins by the blood of the Messiah, and in executing the judgement common to all humanity against himself he wiped away the bill of charges against us, and we were separated from our old nature as far as the east is from the west. To put it frankly, this has been the most abandonment filled journey of my life. That scared me, since abandonment was probably one of my biggest fears, after being abandoned many times in my past. However, I discovered that the further I got from others; the closer God drew me to Him. How could this be, this amazing love, that in my "sin", a holy God, would draw closer to an unholy and dirty human? I know now that I was being prepared by him for my new mission.
While I am no longer a firefighteemt, I have maintained that God's calling on my life is to be a spiritual paramedic on the battlefield of society today, and specifically to others like myself, especially to the ones who have resigned themselves to the sex industry, since that’s the only place that actively validates them( at least on the surface). Finding you, and reading about others like me is, in my opinion, absolute confirmation of 1 Peter 2, where we are taught that never is a prophecy of scripture to be interpreted by an individual on their own, but that people moved by the Holy Spirit do the will of God. I am thankful that God has raised you up as allies.
I want to make it clear that I do not have the “theology” behind being trans all figured out. This is a journey, and it has taken me thirty plus years to arrive at this point. What I do know is that we as trans people are created by God to live a life worthy of His calling. I also know that we are at a deficit when it comes to discussion surrounding us, and right now, the loudest voices in the debate are those who would argue that anything outside of the proscribed gender binary cannot exist, and that we are making an active choice to decide what our gender is. No matter what your views are on the subject, the most important thing that you can do is trust someone who tells you that they don’t feel like they fit into this binary. We struggle with trusting even ourselves, so when we “come out” and we are met with being misgendered, either intentionally or otherwise, it is destructive. We as Christians know that the enemy comes to kill, steal and destroy, so we should not do these things. I would encourage you to stand up for your trans siblings, and likewise for the trans community in general. You can trust that God will deliver a word that will settle the debate, just as He is doing for the rest of the community. My prayer is that we will all see the good fruits that come from simply acknowledging the struggles that trans/non-binary people deal with, and knowing that even though you may not have the answer, you have a concrete, solid foundation for how treat your fellow humans in the way Yeshua treated those who were considered unclean by society.
To my trans guys, gals, and non-binary pals, I want to offer you encouragement in your struggles, knowing that others like us throughout the world are struggling with the same fight, and you are not alone. The enemy tends to lie to us to make us feel like we are the only ones who are fighting this battle, and I hope to dismiss that lie. You aren’t alone, we exist, we are valid, and we are loved by God Most High for exactly who he created us to be. My prayer is that you will find alignment between your heart, body, soul, and mind, and that you will be at peace within yourselves.
I love you all with the love that flows from the Messiah,
Kaila
submitted by ADHDin4K to GayChristians [link] [comments]


2020.10.08 18:35 ADHDin4K My Story. No tl;dr here, I hope that you read the whole thing.

Friends,
I pray that this finds you well. You don't know me. For that matter, I don't know you either. What I do know is the love of the Messiah, and it is evident that you do as well. What a friend we have in Jesus then, who allows us to be fully known to each other through a similar calling, to minister and bring the gospel to those outside the gates - the rejected, marginalized, excommunicated and hurting - those who would be called an abomination by some who seek to claim God and Jesus for themselves, while ignoring the weightier matters of the Torah - justice, mercy, and trust.
I only recently became aware of you, and I am moved to reach out to you. In writing this brief overview of my story, I am hoping to generate a discussion and allyship, because I have seen and experienced firsthand the destructive nature of the "traditional" theology in the lives of LGBTQ believers, myself being one of them. I do not believe that I need to go into much detail about these things, since what has been made clear to me is clear to you as well.
I am a thirty something lesbian transwoman from Texas (read - I have that double gay). I was raised in a traditional southern baptist home, and I came to know Yeshua as my savior at the ripe old age of 5, while listening to Billy Graham on the TV. By that point in my life, I was already in the throes of being refined into the missional nature of God's calling on my life, even though it would take another 25 years for me to understand what that might look like, and three more after that for me to fully submit to it. I was just two years old when my parents separated, and 4 when they were divorced. At the time, and indeed into my twenties, I blamed myself for that, despite my mom’s courageous effort to the contrary. My dad disappeared out of my life, only making himself present when it was beneficial to him. He passed away in 2017, and I am pretty sure he didn't make it into the kingdom, but I remain hopeful that I am wrong about that. Being raised by a single mother, I knew early that the church, while caring for her and I, didn't condone their divorce. I have witnessed and shared in the shame and disgust that she struggled with until the day my dad passed. So when I fully came out, and began my transition, I experienced the typical "there was a disconnect in your childhood that gave you over to a propensity to sin" argument, and it hurt. It hurt to be told that being trans was a product of "sinful" parents, and that there was absolutely no way for me to be God fearing unless I abandoned the things which certain people considered to be sinful, and stopped acting contrary to nature. For reasons that would become known to me later, this didn't sit right.
A great many things have happened in my life, and my filters through which I view the world have been shaped through these experiences. My parents’ divorce was one of those. I didn't know how to quantify it at the time, but reflecting on my childhood there were indicators that I was trans. I used to pray to wake up a female as a young child. I always knew I was different, but I had no idea how to tell anyone that I felt like my body was incongruent with my mind, and how much it hurt to look in the mirror and know that I was different from other girls. Add to this that my mom and I were living in a community where I was the only white kid in my elementary school. It was a recipe for disaster already. My mom, in a valiant attempt to introduce me to positive male role models, unaware of my secret struggles, enrolled me in the boy scouts. I was about 10 years old when I was raped by my tent mate at boy scout camp. It would take another 20 something years for me to work through that alone and by the grace of God I have been able to overcome the damage caused by that and forgive my rapist.
Sometime around the age of 12, I came out for the first time to my mom. It was 1999, and I was beginning to understand that my mind and physical body were not in alignment with each other. I sat down with her one night and cried and told her the truth, that I felt like I wasn’t a boy, but a girl. I confessed to her that I knew this was sin, and would surely be sent to hell for it, and I just wanted to be normal. She did the best she could at the time, and consoled me, cried with me, and for the first time told me that she wasn't sure that my feelings were sinful. At the time, the best information and wisdom that we could seek were available at the church, and so that's where I went, especially since my struggle was with so-called sin. We were attending and active in the drama ministry at our church, I was active in my youth group, and on fire for the Lord. At a Wednesday youth service, I met with my youth pastor and confessed my truth. As you can imagine, I was bible thumped right back into the closet that I had just come out of. I won't mention his name, because I have yet to have the opportunity to communicate with him my forgiveness for his reaction, but I am eagerly awaiting the chance to do so.
In the years that followed, I attempted to do what most of us have done. I escaped into hyper-masculinity, and fervently tried to "pray the gay away". I started lifting weights, playing football, and every other masculine thing I could think of. I even joined FFA, tried my hardest to become an “all American man”, and adopted the racist, misogynistic, bigoted views of my new "friends". (Note- I wasn’t raised this way, nor does God condone this behavior. I was acting out of phobic views for myself. I ask for forgiveness from my family in Christ who have been directly or indirectly harmed by my actions and supposed views, and I have repented of these things.) During this time, I secretly explored my sexuality, and began walking away from God. Even though I never denied Him as my savior, I might as well have by the way living. I continued to struggle with what I termed at the time "cross-dressing" ( I don’t care for this term anymore, because it sexualizes and fetishizes trans people) since there wasn’t a better term for it. I indulged in the excess of life, without much regard for the kind of damage I was doing to my soul, and God's heart. As I progressed though my late teens and twenties, I abused both drugs and alcohol, often to the detriment to those around me, and to myself even though I didn't know it.
I was 21 when my first child, a daughter, was born out of wedlock. I was in a toxic relationship, and the pregnancy was purely unintentional on our behalf. Neither of us wanted a child at the time, however due only to God's grace we didn't abort her. (Note 2 – I fully support a woman’s right to choose, and I believe that the government should have no say in what we as humans do with our bodies.) I am so thankful for His intervention in this, since that was a viable option at the time, and could very well have been the outcome. We separated and decided that the best thing we could do was to raise her to understand how she came to be, and that it was much better for everyone if her mom and I weren't together.
I was working on a geotechnical research vessel in Mexico when I felt the call on my life to become a firefighter. So, at 23, I left the oilfield behind and began my journey to be obedient to this calling. I attended fire academy and EMT school (both are required to be a certified professional firefighter in Texas) and graduated with a 4.0 gpa at the top of my class. Please bear in mind that my secret struggle reared its ugly head in my life the ENTIRE time. I was able to keep it secret though, because since the first bible beating, I was determined to keep my struggles a secret. I carefully crafted this "all American man" image over years and was able to keep it up through cleverly contrived myths and lies, to everyone, including myself. In 2013 I met my now ex-wife and began dating her, and we were quickly in love, and married in 2014. This is where it gets interesting, and I believe the moment that God began actively working me and shaping me into the woman I am today.
Before we were married, and for the first time since I was 12, I confided in another human about my secret. To my surprise, she encouraged me to explore this side of myself. I actually remember praying that God would bring me a woman who would accept me for who I was, so when she did, I instantly (and wrongly, as I would later find out) believed that I was supposed to spend my life with her. Even though on the surface we were the average cis-heterosexual married couple, we were anything but behind closed doors. Shortly after we were married, we experienced two miscarriages back to back. I didn't know any better, but our relationship was toxic and destructive for both of us from the outset. In 2015, we attended a marriage retreat for firefighter couples, and it was there that she confessed to me that it was her desire to open up our marriage to a third party. Since she was so accepting of my secret, I felt like I needed to reciprocate, even though it made me angry and jealous on the inside. This same weekend, we got pregnant with our son, who was born premature in February of 2016. We stayed married, and tried our hardest to keep up appearances, even though we led a secret life. Both of us were so well versed in hiding ourselves by this point, it came almost naturally.
Fast forward to July 31, 2017. The date is burned in my mind because that is when everything changed. I was serving as a Driveoperator in the fire department(it was a full time career for me, not volunteer), and part of that role was to "ride-up" or take the place of the station lieutenant in their absence. It was a day like any other, I left for work about 4:30 am, and we had our usual fight that morning, which had become the norm. I arrived at work, tried to put it behind me, and began my duties that day as an acting LT. About noon, we were called to a house fire in a neighboring territory, on a 2nd alarm - a call for more resources. We arrived and quickly fell into our roles on the fireground. This story in and of itself would probably take me an hour to tell, so for the sake of being brief, I'll get to the moment where I came as close to death as I have ever come. About two hours into fighting the fire, I was in command of the crews operating on the 2nd floor of the house when the building collapsed around us. I was hit by a roof beam and knocked down the stairs, dislocating my shoulder and breaking my nose. This is where I must stop and proclaim the mercy of the living God. Had that beam hit me just a few inches to the right, I would not be here today. I am convinced in that moment God spared me, and my colleagues. Mercifully, I was the only one injured out of about 6 of us present when the collapse happened.
During my recovery, I attempted suicide three separate times, and became heavily addicted to marijuana and amphetamines. I have since been healed of these things, and I am happy to go into more detail about any specifics of my life with you at another time. I am only briefly touching on them here so that you can have an accurate understanding of the thick mire of death that God himself reached down and plucked me out of.
In order to tie all this together, it was during my recovery that God began leading me down the path that would eventually lead me to this story that I am writing to you today. I began to question the position of the church about people like me, since the "official" stance didn't include one critical point. It failed to consider those of us who were already believers. As I began to come out, and lead a double life, my ex and I drifted apart, separated, and divorced. I came out for the second time to my mom, but this time she was determined to see my through this journey, as I was determined to see it through myself, understanding that we are absolutely forgiven of our sins by the blood of the Messiah, and in executing the judgement common to all humanity against himself he wiped away the bill of charges against us, and we were separated from our old nature as far as the east is from the west. To put it frankly, this has been the most abandonment filled journey of my life. That scared me, since abandonment was probably one of my biggest fears, after being abandoned many times in my past. However, I discovered that the further I got from others; the closer God drew me to Him. How could this be, this amazing love, that in my "sin", a holy God, would draw closer to an unholy and dirty human? I know now that I was being prepared by him for my new mission.
While I am no longer a firefighteemt, I have maintained that God's calling on my life is to be a spiritual paramedic on the battlefield of society today, and specifically to others like myself, especially to the ones who have resigned themselves to the sex industry, since that’s the only place that actively validates them( at least on the surface). Finding you, and reading about others like me is, in my opinion, absolute confirmation of 1 Peter 2, where we are taught that never is a prophecy of scripture to be interpreted by an individual on their own, but that people moved by the Holy Spirit do the will of God. I am thankful that God has raised you up as allies.
I want to make it clear that I do not have the “theology” behind being trans all figured out. This is a journey, and it has taken me thirty plus years to arrive at this point. What I do know is that we as trans people are created by God to live a life worthy of His calling. I also know that we are at a deficit when it comes to discussion surrounding us, and right now, the loudest voices in the debate are those who would argue that anything outside of the proscribed gender binary cannot exist, and that we are making an active choice to decide what our gender is. No matter what your views are on the subject, the most important thing that you can do is trust someone who tells you that they don’t feel like they fit into this binary. We struggle with trusting even ourselves, so when we “come out” and we are met with being misgendered, either intentionally or otherwise, it is destructive. We as Christians know that the enemy comes to kill, steal and destroy, so we should not do these things. I would encourage you to stand up for your trans siblings, and likewise for the trans community in general. You can trust that God will deliver a word that will settle the debate, just as He is doing for the rest of the community. My prayer is that we will all see the good fruits that come from simply acknowledging the struggles that trans/non-binary people deal with, and knowing that even though you may not have the answer, you have a concrete, solid foundation for how treat your fellow humans in the way Yeshua treated those who were considered unclean by society.
To my trans guys, gals, and non-binary pals, I want to offer you encouragement in your struggles, knowing that others like us throughout the world are struggling with the same fight, and you are not alone. The enemy tends to lie to us to make us feel like we are the only ones who are fighting this battle, and I hope to dismiss that lie. You aren’t alone, we exist, we are valid, and we are loved by God Most High for exactly who he created us to be. My prayer is that you will find alignment between your heart, body, soul, and mind, and that you will be at peace within yourselves.
I love you all with the love that flows from the Messiah,
Kaila
submitted by ADHDin4K to TransChristianity [link] [comments]


2020.08.26 18:31 CFB_Referee Hurricane Laura

Given how Hurricane Laura has progressed and how projections have shifted, we made the call to get a relevant thread up for folks. (Also, it is 2020, so who knows?) With football season comes hurricane season, even in times of COVID-19.

Relevant News

Please look to local news, local weather, and local and state emergency management agencies to find out more about how you may be affected, if you need to evacuate, and steps on getting prepared. Please everyone stay safe.
U
Forecasts, Predictions, and Watches/Warnings
Tulsa
Preparedness & Planning
College students should check out their university's emergency alert system - if you're not signed up to get notices, you should!
Useful links on: hurricane preparedness, emergency kits, emergency supplies for your car.
Louisburg
Other things worth thinking about or getting:
  • General: A cooler. Fun/mental health stuff - books, games, etc. Cash. Weather radio and batteries. Flashlights > candles. Backup cell phone, laptop, or other batteries. Extra water. Hand sanitizer. Comfort items (a toddler's blankie, the puppy's favorite toy, your grandpa's watch you can't imagine losing).
  • Specialized: Transportation and assistive devices (think especially about children, pets, the elderly, people with disabilities).
  • Cars: Gas. Window breakeseatbelt cutter.
Gattaca Florida
Safety:
  • Check your smoke detector and carbon monoxide detector batteries!
  • Watch out for downed power lines. Never assume it is dead. Avoid it.
  • Assume floodwaters are deeper than they look. Turn around, don't drown.
  • Learn your flood and evacuation zones!
  • Food safety from the FDA and USDA.
  • If your home floods and you need to go up, head for the roof. Keep an ax in your attic to get out that way if you need it.
  • Be aware of potential 911 delays.
  • Evacuate! If you can, check on people you know to see if they need help evacuating if you can offer it or put them in touch with someone who can.
Hertfordshire
Documentation:
  • Bring it with you.
  • Store it in a plastic bag to they are together and stay dry.
  • House deed/rental agreement/lease.
  • Insurance information (home, car, renters, medical, flood).
  • Identification (ID card/driver's license, passport, Social Security card, marriage/birth certificates).
  • Take photographs of your home before you evacuate and when you return. Good documentation of the damage may help if you need to file an aid or insurance claim.
For long-term preparedness, check out CERT training information.
Holland
Evacuation

College Football Information

Home Away Location Date Time Current Status
Central Arkansas Austin Peay Cramton Bowl, Montgomery, AL 8/29 9:00 PM ET Still going ahead.

College Specific Information

University or College Status Source
Alvin Community College Closed 2
Baton Rouge Community College Closed 3
Bossier Parish Community College Closed 6
Brazosport College Closed 1
Central Louisiana Technical Community College Closed 6
College of the Mainland Closed 1
Franciscan Missionaries of Our Lady University Closed 3
Galveston College Closed 2
Houston Baptist Houston Baptist University Moving to Online Classes 1
Houston Community College^ Closed 2
Lamar Lamar Closed 8
Lee College Closed 2
Lone Star College Closed 2
LSU LSU Closed 4
LSU Shreveport Mix of Cancellations and Continuing Online 6
McNeese McNeese Closed 7
Nicholls Nicholls State University Closed 9
Northwest Louisiana Technical Community College Closed 6
Northwestern State Northwestern State University Closed 6
Panola Panola College Closed 6
Prairie View A&M Prairie View A&M University Closed 10
Rice Rice University Closed 1
Sam Houston State Sam Houston State University Closed 1
San Jacinto College Closed 1
Southeastern Louisiana Southeastern Louisiana University Classes Cancelled 11
Southern Southern University Closed 5
Stephen F. Austin Stephen F. Austin State University Classes Cancelled 12
Texas A&M University at Galveston Evacuating 2
Texas Southern Texas Southern University Closed 13
Texas Woman’s University Houston Campus Closed 2
Houston University of Houston Moving to Online Classes 1
University of Houston-Clear Lake Closed 2
University of Houston-Downtown Closed 1
University of Houston-Victoria Moving to Online Classes 2
University of St. Thomas Closed 2
Sources

Learn More

submitted by CFB_Referee to CFB [link] [comments]


2020.08.20 05:03 broccolinislippers Strange Memorial by JNFather Doesn't Stop Siblings from Bonding

(TW:child abuse, in original post) Original post here: https://www.reddit.com/JUSTNOFAMILY/comments/i9i1ps/exhausted_is_the_kitten_worth_it/
When I described what happened to one of my close friends, she said the memorial sounds like an episode of "Black Mirror." It's just so odd and surreal. This is really long... maybe most of you won't read it and that's ok, but I need to tell the story to process it.
TLDR: update that we definitely are not getting the kitten from my dad and will have to wait and see on the adoption websites if he shows up. Surreal memorial that was not even about my mother, but about "Jesus" and my dad. It was basically like an "intervention" and the preachers definitely treated us like they had been told we were Satan's spawn. My dad put up a bunch of pictures in a display and conveniently did not display any but one that had me in them. My dad denied my moms wishes and got her ashes interred at a place we don't have any details about, when she wanted her ashes spread in a beautiful and/or meaningful place. My dad basically didn't talk to anyone but church people, did not see me or any of my mom's family before the service, and left immediately. He switched hotels last minute after embarrassing me and my husband by calling our (at the time mutual) hotel four times in the same night because he did not believe me that they agreed to have my mom's kitten in the room (that we were originally supposed to adopt while there). Despite all this, a good thing happened for my siblings and I, who got to spend time together and talk about my mom, and all of our spouses get along swimmingly.

My mother passed away on July 30th. She was a religious person, specifically catering to my fathers preference of very extreme, conservative, fundamental Baptist (Christian). For those of you in the US, the Southern Baptist Convention is too "liberal" for my father. My mom was only 52 and very healthy and died of an aggressive colon cancer, diagnosed a year ago. Her doctors said it would take her in 8 weeks without treatment, and since she got treatment at one of the best cancer centers in the world, she was able to get a whole year instead. Toward the end, she was suffering, and my father frequently refused medications prescribed by her physician teams, including her oncologists and palliative care doctors and nurses. He, despite my pleading, also refused pain medication while she was suffering dying, not because it was against our religion, but because "she doesn't need pain medicine, she isn't in pain she is just uncomfortable." She couldn't speak for herself, and I was pleading with him over the phone from states away because I was sick at my own home with COVID-19. I work in Critical Care and although I was trying to tell him the medication would help her be more comfortable, he was screaming at me not to "diagnose over the phone." He told me she was uncomfortable because she was sitting on her backside too much and she needed to be able to get up more and walk around, not pain medication. He was in complete denial of everything, would not get help for himself or my mother, would not make the house more accessible for her, and got offended at my asking for pain medication and cut off all contact with me except through my sister, who witnessed my moms pain in person and reported back concerned asking me what she can do, which was nothing. He was in control and my dying suffering mom had no one who could help her because of him. (part of this was in original post; sorry for repeating but I just want to re-emphasize how awful this is and how it made everyone, especially mom, feel).
I talked originally about mom's sweet kitten, and how my father will take him to the pound in September rather than giving him to us to adopt because he is "messy". I took y'alls advice and contacted the shelter in question via email, and pulled up their adoption policies so I am ready to adopt if he shows up there. No one got back to me yet, but they also use PetFinder online to post their pets for rehoming, so hopefully I will be able to see him on there if he does. My dad didn't mention anything about the kitten when I saw him, so I definitely won't be getting it from him. Thank you for your advice.
For the memorial, my dad had everyone drive/fly to South Carolina, 5.5 hrs drive from where he lived with her in Florida, to be at the last church they were members of (for only about a year, year and a half). Ok, this makes sense, sort-of. I'm not sure why they didn't ask a preacher who knew her better, but ok. What doesn't make sense, is that mom had said she wished to be cremated and specifically said to me "do not put me in the ground" and "do not come visit me or anything, I think that is weird" and then Dad went and had her ashes interred at a national cemetery in Florida. She had said to spread her ashes someplace meaningful or beautiful. I wanted to take them to the Grand Canyon, where my dad's favorite pic of her was taken, and where decades before that they took their honeymoon. Whatever. So instead of having the service there where he is putting the ashes, which is the city some of my BIL's family lives and much shorter drive for sister and her toddler (5 hours less), very close for my dad's mother, and close to my mom's home, everyone had to go to another state for this church? He also did not tell anyone he was doing this with the ashes or ask any opinions about it, or disclose the location to anyone. Hopefully he will give us this information later?
During the memorial, my dad also only talked about my mom in relation to Jesus. Her obituary said absolutely nothing about what a sweet and friendly person my mom was, how talented she was, how she was caring and giving and funny, etc, it just mentioned that she was a committed follower of Christ, wife to my dad, mother to me and my siblings. Ok, maybe it was to keep it to the point. But then, at the memorial, only the same theme was present. He gave a speech about her relationship with God throughout her life. He didn't say anything personal about her except the date they met and that he knew he needed to marry her because of a "voice in his head." He talked about her wanting only to make sure others came to Christ and would tell everyone she knew about The Lord. My mother wasn't a missionary or preacher... yes she was devoted in her beliefs and her faith, she told others frequently after her diagnosis that "God is in control" and she was not worried about what would happen to her because God had a plan. She didn't, however, try to convert anyone, do door to door witnessing, try to get any family members or friends go to church except my sister, try to explain how to be "saved" to anyone. She was a good person and faithful, but he made it sound like she was traveling the world converting everyone she met to Jesus, and did nothing else of value. He didn't mention any of her family outside of him and his children or any remorse that any other family would miss her or the time she spent with them. There was not any discussion or opening for anyone else to say anything nice or share memories about my mom either, only discussion of how she loved Jesus and she wanted everyone to come to Jesus. The preacher gave a long speech about how they weren't sad because they would all see Mom again in heaven while they are worshipping God, and everyone should be "saved." He went through explanations about how doing good deeds or going to church isn't enough, how the only way to get to heaven is their specific way, etc etc, you're all going to hell, blah blah... while we are trying to mourn and remember my mom. They said come talk to us later so we can make sure you know where you're going when you die. All the weird church people who didn't even know my mom came by to give a stern look and say "I'm praying for you" and it seemed that no one there even really knew my mom except two of her coworkers from many states away who had come to her memorial. (They actually talked with me a little about the best things about being around my mom and how she lifted up those around her.) It seemed like most people there had definitely been told that this was some kind of intervention for me and my siblings and extended family who weren't in their "cult". I don't mean to offend anyone who is religious- my whole family is Christian, some baptist/protestant, some Catholic. This was not just religious, it was aggressive and surreal that this service about my mom said nothing about her.
The display with all the pictures had couples pictures and family pictures, but I was in none of them but one, from when I was 4 years old (I am 32 now). The reason my dad gave was he wanted "more recent pictures" that "people would be recognizable in." I don't think anyone could recognize me at 4... he took pictures as a hobby and was constantly shooting photos growing up, and we took studio family photos every year. He had plenty "more recognizable" ones from when I was 17 or 18 before I left home. My brother and sister were featured in the display as 8 and 10 year olds, so they were recognizable then but somehow I am not? This was the first thing my family members noticed when they walked in, they would tell me later. It was so surreal... it was like I didn't exist, I didn't matter, my feelings didn't matter, my relationship with my mom didn't matter... all that mattered was my dad and Jesus. I had to sit there when I wanted to be remembering and honoring my mom and get talked down to by the preacher who had obviously been told by my dad, given the way he greeted me before his speech, that I'm some kind of heathen. Ironically, not to toot my horn or try to compete or anything like that, but just how nonsensical it all is, I did lots of witnessing and converting when I was a child and teenager. I was fully brainwashed and just trying anything really to get accepted by my abusive dad, who didn't even notice this or care. I did door-to-door witnessing, I took people to church, I led youth bible studies and participated in campus ministries. I reached out to many, many more people than my mother ever did, and yet all that was valid about her was her witness for Christ? That doesn't even make sense. She was a wonderful wife- she was eternally patient with him even though he is absolutely maddening... he couldn't even find his keys without her. She was creative, an amazing cook and baker, artistic, funny, nice to everyone she met, quirky, hardworking... she was loved by all her coworkers and a good boss when she managed people... so many wonderful things about her and he only wants to talk about her religion and kind of embellish it? I was so upset by all this. And he won't even talk to me.
I wanted to see if maybe I could talk to my dad since he had been shutting me out or texting me and taking it the wrong way but not allowing me to call. My dad kicked us out about ten minutes after the service because he needed to clean up his display and the church people needed to go. He had barely spoken to me except to mumble a "thanks for coming" and he continued to deflect me. He said he would not be hugging anyone or shaking hands due to the virus, but he hugged the preacher and random church people from a church he hasn't attended in over 8 mos and only attended for a year prior? He had long conversations with random nice people who were just making nice people small talk and didn't know him or my mom at all (evident by the types of questions they were asking), but I couldn't talk to him? The preachers and some of the church people weren't even in masks, and he was afraid to talk to us because he is at risk because he's had pneumonia before, but they don't pose a risk? We were definitely too infected for him to touch or talk to from traveling and having gotten COVID and gotten better, even with masks on and a few feet apart, but the church people don't even need a mask and he can hug them? It was all so weird and contradictory. My dad had also switched his hotel the day before to not be in the same one we were in-- the one he had called four times while he berated me and accused me of lying and being irresponsible via text message because I had asked them to let us have my mom's kitten we were supposed to adopt from him, and he didn't believe me that they were going to allow it. So we stayed in the hotel despite the embarrassment, so as not to make waves, but we find out he switched his hotel and won't talk to anyone before the service. He wouldn't talk to me during or after the service either. I invited him back to the hotel lobby where my mom's family was going to gather, and he said maybe but most likely no because he needed to preserve my moms funeral flowers right away. He texted later he wouldn't be coming. He didn't say he loved us, or tell everyone sorry I can't make it, or safe travels, or anything else. Whatever.
On the plus side, I was able to have family to our room because we got a room with a living room attached to it, and I asked everyone to go around the room and say what their favorite thing about my mother was. A lot of wonderful memories were shared (spoiler: none of them were about Jesus). After my aunt, uncle, and grandma went to the airport, my siblings and I and our spouses all had dinner and hung out in the hotel room after. Fortunately and unfortunately, we had all gotten COVID and recovered from it, so we didn't have to worry as much about pandemic precautions. We all expressed that the whole situation was super weird and I got overflowing support from both my siblings and extended family that they love and care about me, and did not understand or agree with how my father has treated me throughout my life or recently, or how terrible he was to me about my mom's treatment and the whole kitten situation. My siblings and I have gotten close as adults despite my parents at times trying to actively pit us against one another, especially my dad with his abusive treatment of me and excusing my sister from all wrongdoing and spoiling her. We had a great time spending time together and sharing memories about my mom, and we made plans to get together as soon as we can when the pandemic has cooled down. Over all, I have come to the conclusion that we all just have to remember and honor her in our own way, and that we have to make our own family now the way that WE want to love each other and WE want to treat each other. My dad can choose to be a part of that or not, but coming to us and being involved is going to be on HIM, not us, and especially not me. It's sad, but my mom was kind of in the position of spreading my dad's negativity and hate around, and with her gone, he doesn't have as much influence and the cloud has kind of been lifted in a way. We decided as the kids that we want to have a close, loving family, and he can do what he wants but that doesn't have to concern us.
I guess I don't really have any advice to ask, but if anyone has any, feel free to share. I also had a few AITA moments because my dad gaslights me and I can never tell if what he is saying/doing is intentionally hurtful/spiteful or just because of his (undiagnosed) mental condition which everyone thinks must be some form of autism. I don't want to be overly judgmental of what a grieving person does, and I can't imagine what he is going through. They were married 31 years. But I am not the asshole. I have done what I can. I'm not even sure I want any apologies from him... the last ones were more or less a trick to get what he wanted, so I don't think I could trust it.
submitted by broccolinislippers to JUSTNOFAMILY [link] [comments]


2020.08.08 21:31 dianesomething Asking because I’m concerned. How is everyone holding up right now? How is your doomsday family handling all this? Are you getting support you need right now?

POMO here. I’m posting right now because I hope that sharing makes people feel less alone. What I really want to know is how you are holding up with everything crisis that’s going on right now. My questions are numbered below, toward the end. It’s totally ok to skip the background story if you want.
I’m 42. Been POMO since 25. I don’t have contact with my witness family other than when they occasionally insta stalk me. It’s been well over a year since the last text blast that I got was “tattooed voting yoga witch” accusations. Of all the things.
My tattoos are reminders of my sobriety and my healing from an entire childhood of mental and physical abuse directly from Jehovahs witnesses. I voted for Obama twice. I am pro choice. I am pro cannabis. I campaign against trump and the relig right. I fight for social justice. I won’t ever stop that. I am a registered yoga teacher and work with other severely traumatized people and teach recovery yoga. Not stopping that either. The witch part? IF THE BROOM FITS, FINE. I often wonder how much time they count and turn in for their efforts to harass me? Sometimes I wonder if multipliers exist on the time card now for certain kinds of policing. I digress.
I have one sister. Her and my mother are hardcore JW. My mother’s mother joined the witnesses early 1970’s, when it was all going to blow in 1975. Our parents had been divorced since I was a baby. Our alcoholic father took his life in 2002, he was raised Dunkard Brethren in a very violent home. That’s my immediate core biological family. My mother has been married to an old elder since the 90’s. Regional building committee stuff. Blind congregation stuff. I think some of you know the extra special kind of ministry work that involves NO FIELD SERVICE. That’s them.
I have one auntie in my life, a non-witness who has some communication with her sister (my mom). She knows some of the abuse but not the full extent. I never ask how my mom is because it puts auntie in a stressful position. Auntie desperately wants a sistebest friend relationship with my mom, but auntie is worldly so it’s a hard no. That’s what we have in common- we both lost our moms and sisters to the cult. The rest is a little complicated and I have to tread lightly. Auntie is some kind of nouveau hip Christian. But her church is still funded by the southern baptists in the fine print, and is ultra conservative/anti-gay/pro trump, despite the “we can wear leggings to church! We have beer nights” banners. That’s pretty gross to me AS WELL. The difference is that she is open and accepting of people different from her.
Last week I was talking to Auntie. I asked about my mom. I didn’t want to, but I’m so worried about her still. I need to know she’s safe. She’s 68. Her health is shit. Her husband is damn near 80. I’m not an asshole- she’s forever my biological mom. It’s complicated, I still care.
Here’s the lowdown I got:
Mom is living out in the country in north Florida. On what sounds like some kind of doomsday compound. Her anxiety is through the roof. She has been unloading crazy bold statements and scripture warnings on EVERYONE. Her health is shot right now. And she often has to end calls with Auntie to deal with her deep freezers. FREEZERS. As in, ‘ZERS. PLURAL. I don’t even know what to think. For what and how long will stockpiling deep freezers help anything??? Is she going to feed Florida?? That is the shit keeping me up at night - how to get a drop cord or generator through Armageddon. What kind of fresh hell is this.
And THAT was exactly when it broke through for me. The freezers. It’s completely irrational and fear based. I have always questioned, but it’s crystal clear now. My mother has untreated and undiagnosed mental illness. (please read “educated” by Tara Westover). My whole life she has misguidedly been using her faith as her therapy. One time when I was a kid she went to therapy and they told her she needed to leave her church. So SHE QUIT THERAPY. With her level of generational trauma, she can’t see life any different. And she’s stuck in her fear. This one realization about her has helped me work on forgiveness toward her. But we cannot have a relationship with an abuser if I want to stay sober. Boundaries boundaries boundaries.
My sister just turned 50 this week. I don’t know where she is either. Auntie heard my sister is stuck in southern Mexico with her husband, doing missionary work in the most impoverished areas because, WHITE SAVIORS get extra credit. So now, with Covid and closed borders, I worry about her too. Let’s be clear - it’s out of obligation, not because she was ever a nice person or a good big sister. She used to torment me constantly and her and my mother were violent people, citing the rod of discipline for really anything, depending on which way the wind blew that minute.
I have removed myself from contact with my mother and sister, as well as from circles where I would be kept up to date on the play by plays that the witnesses are experiencing now - living during the time it’s all supposed to blow up, and things are blowing up. For my mental health and healing, I need the distance from them.
I mean, literally. I moved as far away as I could. Last year my husband and I got rid of all our stuff and moved to Hawaii to take new jobs. Ahhhhh the irony of living in a tangible “paradise” I’m not supposed to be allowed in because I’m so “unworthy”... THAT seems to REALLY burns EVERYONES biscuits.
TODAY THOUGH- I’m posting this morning because I just really want to send out some support and shout out to my fellow outcasts.
  1. If you’re dealing with this too (please share if it’s comfortable for you) how are you holding up with this kind of pressure?
  2. It is reviving the same PTSD scripts in your head too?
  3. if you’re still IN, what is the spoken/unspoken message coming from HQ these days?
  4. How is your family reacting behind the scenes?
  5. Are there coping strategies you are putting in place?
WITH ALL MY ALOHA, your tattooed voting yoga witch
PS- It’s too triggering to me to look at any videos or .org content. My era of doomsday culting was pre-tech. Although I did see one time a Caleb cartoon about demonic toys, and then recently the apocalyptic horses on the home page at the beginning of this, and I just have no words for any of this. Every now and then I see video clips on reddit of the new GB dudes and they make me intensely uncomfortable. I am highly empathic, and they turn my whole body cold. Something is not right with them. Their energy is DARK. They are hiding more than we can even guess. Years ago, when watchtower rebranded to .org, my mother told me “its all completely different. We have an app now. You design apps, You’d love it”. And my reply was, “oh, so did your belief system change with it? No? Ok. STILL NOT INTERESTED.” Unrelated to that... last year I went to my in-law’s JW funeral, and I about fell over when I saw everyone holding up their smartphones to follow along with scriptures. I didn’t know it was a contest who can hold it the highest and longest. Almost all right-handed. All brand new devices. Not one cracked screen. modest pop sockets. rolls eyes so hard can see own brain I was there a hot 5 minutes and left to wait for the luncheon. Everything has changed, yet nothing has changed.
submitted by dianesomething to exjw [link] [comments]


2020.07.23 19:19 schaeldieavocado Who are the Andersons? or: Faithful World Baptist Church - an organised hate group (TW: Upsetting content)

I originally had about 10 pages in word for this so AMA if you wann know more. I hope all the links lead to the correct source, because my collection of data was a hot mess and sometimes I forgot to put the link down.
I know it's a sub rule, so it shouldn't need to be stated again, but absolutely do not contact them on social media. For them being hated is a sign of godliness and even if you managed to show them proof that they're wrong, they'd probably believe you're just part of the worldwide shadow government that made that statistic up. Seriously, they are really into conspiracy theories.
I sectioned this post into the following topics: The family - What they are known for - Their religion - Their homo- and transphobia - Their anti-Semitism and Holocaust denying - Raising the children - Gender roles - Home-schooling - Modesty/Dating/Marriage - Reproductive rights - Racism and Slavery
The family
Steven and Zsuzsanna Anderson have 11 Kids: Solomon (18), Isaac (17), John (15), Miriam (13), Rebecca (11), Anna (9), Stephen (7), Boaz (6), Chloe (4), Peter (2) and Eva (born September 2019)[1].
Steven and Zsu met in 1999 when Steven (then 18) was trying to convert heathens in Germany. Zsu (then 20) was not a believer, but since Steven was handsome they wrote each other for months. On July 28th in 2000 she visited Steven and was promptly converted. They married on August 13th that same year and instead of finishing her college degree (cultural anthropology/journalism/political science)[2] she moved to the US in September.[3]
Steven is the pastor of Faithful World Baptist Church, a new independent fundamentalist Baptists (NFIB)[4], KJV only church[5] that is listed as an organised hate group by Southern Poverty Law Center[6].
What they are known for
Steven Anderson is banned from South Africa, the UK, Botswana, Malawi, Jamaica, The Netherlands (and thus the entire Schengen Area), Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand because of his homophobic and anti-Semitic hate speech. The bush fires in Australia were God’s revenge for him being banned from Australia[7].
In one of his sermons, Anderson publicly stated that he’s praying for Obama to die. This was supposed to happen due to brain cancer, so he wouldn’t turn into a martyr. Secret Service was worried enough to contact him.[8]
The three eldest Anderson boys (Solomon, John and Isaac) were part of a group chat that included girls as young as 13. There they shared their fantasies of choking, raping, beating and sodomizing these girls during sex. Solomon shared pictures of himself. There was talk of grooming the girls and they wanted to pay hookers with church funds to have sex with after praying for them. Anderson claims to have handled the punishment at home and banned both the families of the affected girls and church members who brought the topic up. He says it’s a private matter and the boys should be forgiven.[9][10][11] When the Josh Duggar scandal broke, Zsu had different reactions: Paedophiles deserve the death penalty, there was no forgiveness for Josh and it should not have been kept private in order to protect other potential victims.[12] A family that raised Josh is not allowed to pretend to be a moral upstanding Christian family, and bad parenting is the reason he turned out that way.[13] Zsu once stated that she’d stop socialising with her children if they were gay or child molesters or mass murderers.[14]
Solomon had a courtship with a girl called Saer but I don't have a source By 17 Solomon was engaged to a girl named Saer, thanks u/maggiemazz29. From what I have gathered, her parents used to be involved with the porn industry before getting saved, which was apparently the reason the relationship was broken off. However, on their blog there are still many pictures of the two of them together. Solomon seems to have been interested in Saer from when he was 14.[15] There’s a blogpost about him liking a girl and wanting to marry her and she’s described as a good friend. Saer is called his BFF around that time.
Their religion
Despite the fact that they are fundies, they do divide the bible into biblical teachings and stories, the latter only record people doing things without saying they are right, so you don’t have to follow them.[16][17] Earth is 6254 years old, give or take 25 years.[18] Salvation happens through faith alone, no need to repent for sins, though it's nice if you do.[19][20][21] They don’t believe in the prosperity gospel[22], but they don’t have a rainy day fund as God has them covered[23]. The chain of command goes God -> husband -> Wife -> children.[24] Created to be his Help Meet is a good book.[25] They are part of the quiverful movement and believe God should decide how many children you have, even if having more kids might kill you. Evolution and the big bang theory are the same thing and are wrong, and dinosaurs and humans lived at the same time.
Their homo- and transphobia
Steven Anderson celebrated the Orlando nightclub shooting and expressed sadness over the fact that unlike in the past the victim’s families were not ashamed to claim their dead family members.[26][27] He wants the death penalty for LGBTQAI+ and ministers that perform same-sex marriages should be stoned to death.[28][29] AIDS is God’s revenge and will be cured by killing every single homosexual person.[30][31] Gay people are paedophiles.[32] IVF is used by the LGBTQAI+ community to have children to prey on.[32] Homosexuality is Zsuientifically proven to be a choice and those “sodomites” recruit through rape and molestations in schools and day cares.[33][34][35][36] Once you turned into an animal by choosing to be gay you can never be saved. Steven Anderson once held a Make America Straight Again conference and another time he told a gay reporter he hoped he’d die of brain cancer.[37][38] Gay people run the US (but depending on who they hate more any given day, sometimes it’s the Jews/shadow government).[39] Transgender people are an abomination.[40]
Their anti-Semitism and Holocaust denying
Once, Steven Anderson tricked Holocaust survivors into appearing in an anti-Semitic and Holocaust-denying Film.[41] Jews are not God’s chosen people, they are some of the most immoral people in the world.[42][43] Dark forces were responsible for the founding of Israel
While at one point Zsucifer acknowledged that the Nazi regime had murdered 6 million Jews[44], she later stated that there were no trains full of Jews brought to extermination camps and that there were no gas chambers. According to that statement, only a fraction of 6 million people died indirectly due to being mistreated during WW2, a mistreatment that was necessary and normal for war.[45]
Raising the children
To Train Up A Child is unnecessarily tough is it breaks a child’s will.[46] You are supposed to spank your child from at around age one (a guesstimate by me based on different posts).[47] Zsu claims she dislikes spanking but is really blasé about it, casually mentioning that Isaac had a sore bum after trying to strangle John as a child.[48][49] If they are out and the kids misbehave they get tallies put on their hands and spanked according to those at home.[50]
Zsu seems to feed her children a healthy amount of organic food, but the diet is quite carb heavy and their fridges and freezers are locked between meals.[51][52] Sister mumming is done by both girls and boys and Solomon is Anna’s favourite parent.[53] You should not teach your kids to share, because that teaches them to be communist. The child that has to share gets taught that stealing in form of taxes is okay, the one that gets to share will turn into a welfare recipient.[54][55]
Gender roles
Women should not have the right to vote, to seek divorce or to work outside the home.[56] It’s okay though for Zsu to work multiple jobs from home.[57][58][59][60][61] In order to write a cook book, Zsu actually got a woman to move in with her and take care of the kids, but they are totally not affected by her working.[62] A man’s work is much more important than a women’s.[63]
If your husband is abusive or threatening to kill you, you have to stay with him. It’ll teach your kids to make a better choice
If the chores get too much, just have your kids do them. Once Miriam was brought on vacation with Zsu and Steven just so that she could mind the baby.[65] In the words of Steven:
„If my wife asks me to do something like take out the trash, I tell her to have one of the kids do it. I didn’t sire nine children, so I could take out the trash or pick up after the family dog."
If your husband does something that falls into your jurisdiction you better make damn sure to thank him and don’t you dare criticise him for doing it wrong[66]
Girls should never become preachers, judges, police officers or military personnel, they should get married, have kids and be a stay at home mum.[67] Dads and big brothers are there to protect a girls virginity, and Steven goes out on one on one dates with his daughters.[68][69]
Steven thinks women shouldn’t view it as their duty to have sex with their husbands but they need to help him avoid temptation by „being available to meet [their husband’s] needs“.[70] Steven compares the relationship between husband and wife to that of employer and employee
Home-schooling
Day care/schools/counselling/Sunday schools are all run by paedophiles and child abusers; they are also full of drugs, alcohol and bad peers.[71][72] Day care causes SIDS.[73] You should not leave your children out of sight, but it’s okay to use church goers to look after your children and clean your house for free.[74] For Steven, the avoidance of those institutions seems to be about control, as he can’t control what’s being said there.
The bible commands you to home-school your kids. Traditional school work should be limited to 40 minutes a day and subjects the kids don’t like don’t have to be covered.[75] There’s a three month break whenever a new baby comes along.[77] Once your children are able to read you don’t have to actively teach them anymore[78]
College is overrated and worthless. Anything taught at college can be learned through apprenticeships and reading. If you do want to have a job that requires a degree, you should go to a private college without “diversity training”[79]
Modesty/Dating/Marriage
Skirts only (PJ pants seem to be okay), shoulders may be shown.[80][81][82] Modesty means you should blend into society.[83] Girls have to have long hair and boys have to have short hair.[84]
Kids get to choose their own partners from a pre-approved pool. Zsu once mentioned she thinks it’s nice for girls to wear purity ring. Courting and dating are the same thing and unmarried couples should either be supervised or dating in public spaces. Their rule of thumb for what is okay before marriage is if you wouldn’t do it with someone of the own gender, don’t do it with the opposite gender. There should be no physical contact except for normal, everyday gestures. You should be in love with your partner prior to marriage.[85][86]
There are diseases that are not STDs, but are unheard of in virgins getting married - unfortunately Steven Anderson doesn’t name those. It’s okay to sleep with a few people if your spouse dies and you get remarried. However, sleeping with hundreds of people is wrong, because our bodies were not created to exchange bacteria with that many people.[87]
Reproductive rights
A Zsucientifial Study proves that 90 % of OB/GYNs are male, 100 % of those are perverts, so 90 % of OB/GYNs are perverts.[88] OB/GYNs only choose that career in order to prey on victims.[89] But essential oils are the amazing.[90][91]
Abortion is the American Holocaust[92] (though since the Holocaust didn’t happen according to them that leaves me a bit confused). Abortion includes IVF and birth control. IVF is perverse because you are getting impregnated by another man (a doctor).[93] NFP is wrong because it defrauds your husband and he would have to abstain for longer than the bible allows.[94] Condoms are unbiblical because they prevent husband and wife from becoming one flesh.[95] Birth control is the reason for high divorce rates and leads to you choosing the wrong partner.[96][97]
Zsu doesn’t seem to believe in infertility, as in the bible every single woman that prayed for a child had one in the end.[98]
They openly admit to only care about unborn lives as Steven is in favour of cutting financial support for drug addicts and “whores”.[99] He has to work for endless hours to pay “every lazy whore who lives on welfare” and “her bastard children” that obviously all have different fathers[100]
Racism and Slavery
In the words of Zsucifer:
“People in Africa live like animals and sleep with everyone and everything that moves.“.
White people are not the dominant society in the US. POC are the racists. Black activists teach black people to be dependent on the government, they should just tell them that everyone has to work hard to make a living.[101] POC should not hide behind being less privileged, believing in God would give them all the privilege they need. POC should accept that we can’t all look like God
When one of Zsu’s readers told her it’s offensive to call Native Americans Indians and she should refer to them as „First People“ or „Native Americans“ she played stupid and said she didn’t recall Adam and Eve being Cherokee.
Slavery is good, because the bible says so. If you have a slave, you should beat your slave. Slavery is better than sending debtors to prison.[102] Their love for slavery might be the reason they hate Abraham Lincoln.[103]
submitted by schaeldieavocado to FundieSnark [link] [comments]


2020.06.26 17:58 Schwertmeisterin Holding Girl Defined accountable for their finances. (Spoiler: All donations are spent on self-glorification.)

It's pretty easy to find tax forms for non-profits, so I decided to look up Girl Defined one day.
I didn't know what to expect, but it didn't shock me. Almost all money they grift is spent on self-glorification. I consider their conference to be self-glorification because it involves a bunch of teenagers giving them attention without really giving anything valuable in return. Given how much they blow on the conference, it is definitely designed to make them look good. They're a "non-profit" in the sense that they don't do any good or charitable work, but they want a legal way to avoid paying taxes.
If you don't want to sift through tax forms, here is their budget
Note how they spend a strangely high amount on meals and entertainment. From what I understand, employees (which Bethy and Kristen are) could deduct personal meals and meals they bought as an expense. This would also include Starbucks. Luckily, it appears that as of 2019, they will no longer be able to use grift money on meals and entertainment.
Also notice how 0% of their budget is dedicated to helping anyone but themselves. Okay, they spent $198 on mysterious gifts. Maybe that helped someone. But most ministries are doing things to help the poor, needy, and hungry. Girl Defined doesn't help anyone, which isn't shocking but it is very gross. It's also interesting that they don't tithe 10% of their grifts to a different charity or church, because typically Southern Baptists give 10% tithes of their income. I am sure they have some religious loophole for putting all their money into savings instead of helping others.
It's also very interesting that in 2017, they had to pay 8k for "Other office expenses", but that category was eliminated in 2018.
Another interesting point is that they keep blowing up the conference cost by 7k each year, if their 2019 budget isn't lying. They aren't getting more attendees, but it seems like they're finding a way to spend excess money on something. It also appears they double their salaries each year, so in 2019, they're now making 30k each (Zach gets paid 2k for his accounting services, the other Bairds do not get paid according to the IRS.) So I find it interesting that two women who shame women for working are making around what a teacher in a poor, rural area might make (you have to include the money they funnel to themselves via food and other mysterious reasons as part of their overall salary).
I won't go through the IRS forms, but but there's a lot of...interesting stuff going on there. Like at the end of 2018, they have 92k in savings.
EDIT: I am wondering if the reason they're persistent on killing people with Covid-19 is due to the exorbitant expenses they dedicate to their conference? They rent a church and the ticket price is high, so there's no way it costs 21k. If they didn't hold the conference (and they would probably get refunds on things they rented), it would be harder to hide where all their money is going instead of a vague "conference set-up" category.
I mean I know Girl Defined is greedy AF, but goodness.
submitted by Schwertmeisterin to FundieSnark [link] [comments]


2020.06.15 18:31 Millero15 Crusader Finns Developer Diary 20: Christianity

Obligatory Discord link: https://discord.gg/FZ5Ky5P
Hello there again! This developer diary will be all about the Christian religions in the mod and such. I've talked about some of these in some previous dev diaries, so some information given is likely old, but there should be lots of new information about all the religions shown. There won't be that many pictures in this DD, so don't read this to your 5-year-old. Anyway, let's get to it.
GENERAL CONTEXT
Christianity, for the longest time, was the dominant religion in all parts of Northern Europe. Yet the Apocalypse has greatly disrupted this, in addition to causing minor mutations in the traditions and doctrine of Christianity in the north. Christendom has lost lots of ground in the north and elsewhere, which they will have to recover in various ways. In former Christian lands there are now pagans both old and new, strange cults dedicated to pre-apocalyptic legends and anything in between.
There are different Christian faiths spread all throughout the map. Almost everywhere on the map there is some Christian presence, varying greatly from region to region. Now let's take a look at each individual one.
LUTHERANISM
The Lutherans were on of the two historically dominant denominations on the map, along with the Orthodox Christians. Now it should first be noted that there are multiple Christian faiths on the map which are Lutheran in doctrine, but the label "Lutheran" is used for the mainstream Lutherans headed by the Archbishop of Turku. It can be a little confusing at times, so keep this in mind. There's more to it. In any case, these Lutherans are mostly concentrated in Southwestern Finland, in the old Finnish counties of Finland Proper, Satakunta, Pirkanmaa and the neighboring regions, in addition to some more remote areas such as the Curonian coast in Latvia.
The history of the Finnish Evangelical-Lutheran Church in the post-apocalyptic times is quite interesting. After everything collapsed, the Church managed to keep some cohesion thanks to its bureaucracy and infrastructure. But due to the destruction and loss of technology, this was limited to areas easily accessible from Turku, the HQ of the Finnish Church. Still, the Church gained power and the Archbishop became a powerful man in his own right. His position would be strengthened by the rise of the Kokemäkean Empire in the 24th century.
After the conquest of Finland Proper by the Kokemäkean Kingdom, the Archbishop offered the king an imperial crown in exhange for a terrible deed we'll talk more about later. In any case, the new Kokemäkean Empire united most of Southwestern Finland, expanding its influence into Uusimaa and Tavastia, and into Ostrobothnia and the Archipelago of Åland. This greatly helped the Finnish Church consolidate in the old imperial lands. Indeed, the religious map of Lutheranism in 2517 and the old borders of the empire closely match each other.
But where has this all exactly lead the Finnish Church? I'll tell you. The increase in secular power and influence caused the Finnish church to become authoritarian and politically assertive. The Archbishop is the most powerful person in Christendom, and all kings must be crowned with the approval of the church. To consolidate its power, the church gradually started to enact policies and promote doctrine that gave it power over the centuries. Additionally, to preserve information more efficently, monasticism was reintroduced, something the Lutherans had never practiced. With an politically powerful head, saintly cults, indulgences, holy war, and so on, the Lutheran Church in 2517 is something that would make Martin Luther bash his head into the nearest wall. It has more in common with the medieval Catholic Church than Luther's teachings about the church.
Notably, the church still accepts women into the clergy, a practice that somehow survived the apocalypse. It is a controversial issue that has caused quite a lot of conflict within it, but it is certainly not going away without external interference.
Some have noticed this state of the church, but their complaints have not been adressed. As a result, parts of Sweden and Latvia formerly loyal to Turku have broken off, being known as the Iconoclasts for their opposition to various church policies. It is the sole heresy to the Lutheran religion in this mod.
Mechanically, the Lutheran religion functions similarly to the Catholicism of vanilla. Just imagine the Archbishop of Turku in the position of the Pope, and you get a fairly close image of the Lutheran faith in Crusader Finns. Crusades, papal mechanics, coronations, sainthood, and so on.
Lutheran heartlands
Religion screen
ICONOCLAST LUTHERANISM
Iconoclasm are the sole heresy of Lutheranism. The origin of the Iconoclasts lies in the transformation of the Finnish Church in the post-apocalyptic era. The Iconoclasts are dissidents who have noticed that the church has strayed far from what Martin Luther taught. They demand that the church not be materially wealthy and ditch all the obviously Catholic things and adhere to classical Lutheran doctrine. Yet this the church does not want, and because of that the so-called Iconoclasts are ruthlessly persecuted. However, in parts more removed from the Archbishop, such as Sweden and Latvia, the Iconoclasts achieved predominance.
The Iconoclast religion is similar to Lutheranism, but with many of the obviously Catholic stuff disabled. Additionally, should an Iconoclast hold Turku, they can install an Iconoclast Archbishop. As a minor heresy, there is nothing much to talk about besides that. So let's move on.
Iconoclast regions
EVANGELICISM
The Evangelics are a Lutheran subgroup independent from the Archbishop of Turku. They are a group of independent churches that federated out of necessity. They inherit their name from the Evangelic revival movement, perhaps the most important of the groups that make up the Evangelics. Their religious doctrine varies a little bit, as it is a collection of multiple groups, but generally Lutheranism defines it. These Evangelics should under no circumstances be confused with the Evangelical Christians of America, as they have nothing to do with each other.
The history of the Evangelics in the post-apocalyptic era has been eventful. The original Evangelics were concentrated in Finland Proper, and despite some disputes they were very much a part of the Church of Finland. However, the fact that much of the surroundings of Turku were dominated by a distinct subgroup of Lutherans made some Archbishops a little uneasy, and this unease reached a climax in the 24th century. It begins with a wicked Archbishop whose name was unfortunately lost to history as the Imperial Archives of Tampere burned down in the Great Fire of Tampere in 2486. Anyway, this Archbishop despised the Evangelics and other Lutheran sub-groups for acting indepentently and sometimes refusing to conform. To solve the problem, he - or she, we don't know - decided to invite the Kokemäkean King, Artti I, to invade Finland Proper. To rid the region of the Evangelics, the Archbishop offered the king an imperial crown if he were to enslave every last Evangelic and deport them from Finland Proper. Many tens of thousands of Evangelics were such made to work as agricultural slaves in the Kokemäki river valley. But their story didn't end here.
After some years of slavery, unrest began to spread among the Evangelic slaves. This finally resulted in a great slave rebellion while the Emperor was busy campaigning elsewhere. After local forces failed to contain the revolts, the revolting Evangelics joined into a single group and marched north towards the Ostrobothnian frontiers to claim their freedom. There was nothing to stop them, and almost all Evangelics managed to escape slavery in the Kokemäkean Empire. They would settle down in the region of Southern Ostrobothnia, a chaotic mess both back then and in 2517. They formed new principalities and largely assimilated into the local culture. Eventually the Evangelics would lead the unification of all the churches in Southern Ostrobothnia to form the Evangelic faith as seen in 2517, giving it their name.
Despite the forced enslavement, the Evangelics eventually forgave the Emperor in exchange for peaceful relations with the empire. As a result, most of Southern Ostrobothnia was eventually formed into the Ostrobothnian Frontier Protectorate of the Kokemäkean Empire, finally bringing order to the region. Yet the empire eventually fell, and thus the Evangelic principalities of Southern Ostrobothnia reverted into their previous state of balkanization.
In 2517 the Evangelic religion has not spread beyond the Finnish-speaking parts of Southern Ostrobothnia, save for parts of Västerbotten in Sweden, where some local churches have joined the federation of churches.
Mechanically there is not much to talk about when it comes to the Evangelics. They're there, and that's kind of it.
Evangelicism on the map
BAPTISTS
The Baptists are the only non-Lutheran Protestant Christian faith represented in the mod. As Lutheranism has always been the dominant form of Protestantism in this part of the world, it should be no surprise that they are only limited to a small part of the map, the part of Finland with the greatest density of Baptists - Coastal Southern Ostrobothnia.
The history of the Baptists shares some things with that of the Evangelics. Both Christian groups are situated in Southern Ostrobothnia right next to each other. From the Apocalypse to 2517, little has changed for the Baptists. There they still are, sitting in their corner of Finland. When the Evangelics federated the churches of the region, an attempt was made to include the baptists, but if failed for multiple reasons. First of all, the Baptists were far more numerous than any of the other groups who got incorporated. Second of all, the Baptists are not Lutherans so there was some theological conflict, particularly when it comes to the issue of infant baptism. The third reason is more cultural than anything. The Baptists are almost entirely Swedish-speaking, while few of the Evangelics in Finland were. Being so arrogant and proud, they were reluctant to place themselves under a Finnish-dominated church.
Following the fall of the Imperial Protectorate, the Baptist areas fractured into multiple principalities like the rest of the region. The Finnish Pampas, like the Land of the river Kyrö, is in pieces.
There also exists a small Baptist enclave in Laukaa, part of the Republic of Jyväskylä, which also has a Baptist patrician. It's a little thing.
The Baptists, as of right now, do not have anything special as mechanics. I've not had the time to come up with something for them, being one of the minor religions and all. You already saw the map on the Evangelic section too.
LAESTADIANISM
The Laestadians are another distinct Lutheran group in this part of the world. Their origins trace to Lars Levi Laestadius, a Swedish Sami preacher who was influential in early 19th century Lapland. The Laestadian teachings spread the most in Finland, with Laestadians being around 2% of the Finnish population, largely concentrated in Northern Ostrobothnia. They are morally strict, abstaining from alcohol (except when taking the eucharist), and generally avoiding tattoos, makeup and piercings, among other things. Yeah, I know a lot about them, and for a good reason.
In any case, they have been rather succesful in the post-apocalyptic world. Thanks to the strength of their commuities they managed to weather the storm, and with nothing to resist them, Laestadianism emerged as the dominant form of Christianity in Northern Ostrobothnia, essentially taking over the local Lutheran Church. Indeed, like before the Apocalypse, they are part of the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church, although more nominally than ever before, essentially acting on their own. In addition to Northern Ostrobothnia and spillover, there are Laestadians enclaves in different parts of Lapland.
The Kingdom of Oulu, the greatest Laestadian power, is key to understanding post-apocalyptic Laestadian history. Oulu was close friends with the Kokemäkean Empire, and the two developed a close relationship. It is through this that the relations between the Laestadians and the mainstream Lutherans were handled, and they often depended on the personal relationship shared by the two monarchs. It is no surprise that ever since the Kokemäkean Collapse the Laestadians have strayed ever further from the Archbishop in Turku.
The Laestadians organize their church differently than the Lutherans traditionally have. Rather than having a strictly hierarchical clergy, the Laestadians largely rely on laymen to do the preaching. Indeed, the tradition of laymen preachers is very strong with the Laestadians, which is why they lack offices like bishop or an extensive church bureaucracy, as local communities essentially govern their own church. Important church matters are discussed in an annual council which accompanies the summer services, a grandiose event where a great portion of the Laestadian faithful attend.
Due to its strict morality, Laestadianism borrows the decadence mechanics of vanilla Muslims, causing disaster for those who stray from righteousness. Laestadian rulers may also choose to host or attend summer services occasionally, which has some unique flavor too. I also forgot to mention this in the Lutheran section, but both Laestadians and Lutherans can render the other into a heresy of they control their heartlands. If the Laestadians do this, they can install their own Archbishop and "take over" the Finnish Church. Laestadianism also has a heresy, Firstborn Laestadianism, so watch out for that.
Laestadian heartlands
ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY
Out of all the forms of Christianity listed Orthodox Christianity is definetely the most widespread. Obviously most of Orthodox Christendom is within Russia, but not all of it is. Still, it is largely isolated from the other Christians by a sea of pagans and Old Worldists. Orthodoxy has largely stayed intact in its traditional form after the Apocalypse, even if some things have somewhat altered.
Russia was hit hard by the Apocalypse, with most of the enomous country rendered uninhabitable, at least the old Russian heartlands west of the Urals. Yet the northwestern part, once part of the Republic of Novgorod, managed to make it. Due to this all, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia had to move to Saint Petersburg, by far the most significant Russian city that survived. And he did not come alone. There was a massive Muscovite exodus in particular to St. Petersburg, and Muscovites would hold the Patriarch's position for a long time. Yet this too would come to an end as Muscovite culture greatly declined in the early 25th century. The last person known to have spoken Muscovite Russian was Patriarch Plato I "the Last Muscovite", who died in 2481.
Obviously, communication with Constantinople and her Patriarch has been severed ever since the Apocalypse. Expeditions have been attemped, of course, but none have actually made it. There are rumors of one's existence, but concrete proof has not yet been produced. It is likely that the Orthodox world is split in two by the Great Russian Wastes. The Orthodox Christians to its north are under the influence of the Russian Patriarch, while those in the Black Sea coast and the Mediterranean are under Constantinople's patriarch, if one indeed exists.
In the immediate aftermath of the Apocalypse, it was not known what would happen to the church. As a drastic emergancy measure, the Metropolitans of Finland, Latvia, and Estonia were elevated into proper autocephalous patriarchs. Naturally, some objected to this, but in the face of the end of the world they were simply ignored. Later on Karelia would be given its own Patriarch due to the geographical divide between the Orthodox Christians in Karelia and "Russia Proper". This whole arrangement is known as "the Northern Pentarchy". Yet the Patriarchates of Helsinki, Tallinn, and Riga did not last, fading away at some points in the post-Apocalyptic era.
But Orthodoxy is not the only thing that made it through the Apocalypse, the Old Believers, a dissident group that split from the church over issues of rites, still persists largely in more isolated areas and places where they were historically strong. They are the sole heresy of Orthodox Christianity.
In 2517 the main Orthodox heartland is in Cisvolkhovine Russia, that being the parts of Russia west of the Volkhov. In addition there are other regions which are predominantly Orthodox, as well as smaller enclaves. Olonets Karelia, largely the ethnically Karelian parts, are Orthodox, as well as the Vepsian regions. Far in the north, the Murmansk Republic is also Orthodox despite being so distant to their brethren in the south. In Finland there are large Orthodox populations in some parts of Karelia and Savonia, and the Russian populations in Latvia and Estonia are largely Orthodox too.
Mechanically Orthodox Christianity is very close to the original which fits the religion well. There's the pentarchy mechanics and autocephaly, and all the stuff from Vanilla you know and love.
Orthodox regions
Orthodox religous tab
CATHOLICISM
Finally, we reach Catholicism, ironically the least widespread if all the main Christian faiths. Catholicism, of course, was arguably the main religion in vanilla, and it is familiar to everybody. But if Lutheranism has absorbed most features of vanilla Catholics, what is Catholicism in this mod all about?
Like with all other Christians, the key to understanding the state of Catholicism is the Apocalypse and its aftermath. In particular the European Empire is important to this all. Communication with the Vatican was possible even after the Apocalypse, even if significantly harder. Yet the eventual rise of the European Empire changed it all. With this new non-Christian hegemon in the way, communication got harder. Though the European Empire provides protection to the Papal State and nominally guarantees some religious liberties for some groups, it still intentionally restricts communication with the Catholics of the north, particularly doe to fears over the Pope supporting an invasion of the Catholic Polish nomad hordes to topple the Empire. It is for this reason that the Pope has rather reluctantly delegated much of his authority to local archbishops. The one relevant within the mod's map is the Archbishop of Riga.
The Catholics of the map are a small and relatively isolated bunch, being stuck in the southeast of Latvia. The best comparison would be the Miaphysites or particularly the Nestorians of vanilla, a relatively small Christian group with their own religious head. They still have access to stuff like sainthood, but all the papal politics and crusades are off the table.
Catholic lands
Catholic religious tab
That, I believe, is just about it. As always, questions and comments are more than welcome. Stick around until the next diary, 'cause the release date is ever closer!
submitted by Millero15 to CrusaderFinns [link] [comments]


2020.06.14 23:47 jw_mentions /r/LoriVallow - "Is it really possible or likely that no one in their families or churches knew anything was wrong and none reported that her kids were not with her and none were in the LEAST BIT worried about anything except for Kay and Larry Woodcock? Timeline of some of the events"

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Submission Is it really possible or likely that no one in their families or churches knew anything was wrong and none reported that her kids were not with her and none were in the LEAST BIT worried about anything except for Kay and Larry Woodcock? Timeline of some of the events
Comments Is it really possible or likely that no one in their families or churches knew anything was wrong and none reported that her kids were not with her and none were in the LEAST BIT worried about anything except for Kay and Larry Woodcock? Timeline of some of the events
Author Sandy2065
Subreddit /LoriVallow
Posted On Sun Jun 14 06:33:51 UTC 2020
Score 15 as of Tue Jun 16 06:32:12 UTC 2020
Total Comments 30

Post Body:

Please let me know if i have gotten the dates wrong on things. After i got done researching and posting this i found a much better timeline, more indepth and--with no speculation, by LoriVallow
here: https://www.reddit.com/LoriVallow/comments/gozo11/in_sept_2019_tylee_ryan_age_17_and_jj_vallow_age/
(lol wish i had found it sooner, but i still like my shorter one too because... speculation is fun lol)
October 2018
when lori and Melanie Gibbs met
I was teaching a class at church when I met Lori October 2018, she introduced herself and told me about her spiritual experiences. Melanie had first met him earlier at first met at a conference…maybe at camp in ogden Utah, northern Utah. from Melanie Gibbs interview
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n173Cv1BWB0

October, November 2018
Q When did Lori meet chad?
Melanie Gibbs:(Lori) she met Chad at an event they went to in St George. October, november 2018, a 2 or 3 day meeting,

November 2018
After spending much time talking those two days we went back to arizona and he came down to arizona when it was the next event, uh which was in November sometime and some of my friends and her friends and chad all got to stay in her house… (charles huge house)
Q was Charles there?
No, he went out of town
During the conference at Lori’s home…they spent time talking about things, they went on a walk, jog together.
He had already shared to Lori at St George that they had already been married multiple times before…not in this right now earth life, in multiple earth lives..
Q Did lori have a problem with that?
No she seemed to already understand that teaching already, that she had learned in podcasts so it wasn’t something that was…
Nate: foreign
Foreign, right
Q did you think, she might be falling in love with him?
Yeah I knew..
Q did you say anything to Lori…
I did offer the idea…why don’t you just go ahead and get a divorce? And they were told they werent allowed to…something that they received through the other side of the vail..how..they would speak about it. u/13:23 mins
from Melanie Gibbs interview
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n173Cv1BWB0
January 31, 2019
Charles Vallow contacts police to get a mental health eval of Lori The video was taken on the afternoon of January 31, 2019.
“Bodycam video taken in January 2019 At the time, the issue was over a purse allegedly stolen by Vallow’s former husband.
The video was taken on the afternoon of January 31, 2019. Vallow was walking into the Gilbert Police Department with Tylee. Vallow's friend, Melanie Gibb, was also present.”
The interview happened just days before Charles filed for divorce, accusing Vallow of draining their bank account of $35,000.
"He's mad because I took the money out of our account, but it’s a joint account so he wants me to give him money," said Vallow,
The police report says Charles told officers that Vallow changed the locks to their home, so he forced his way in earlier that morning to learn his wife moved out with their kids.”
“Vallow, Tylee and Melanie leave eventually leave and officers call Charles, telling him he could be charged with theft.”
https://www.fox10phoenix.com/news/bodycam-shows-gilbert-police-interview-lori-vallow-after-husband-tried-to-get-her-mentally-evaluated
So, i know Melanie Gibbs was painted in a nice mormon light and everything by Nate the Mormon reporter but can we just all admit that she knew that Lori was having an affair with Chad and said nothing to the police when Lori Vallow told a bunch of lies while she and the police were all sitting there saying Charles Vallow was the one with the problems? Melanie Gibbs drove Lori to the evaluation. And was in the police interview taped??? And listened to Lori spin the yarn that Charles was having an affair and said nothing to the officer that it was Lori that was having an affair??? I didnt hear "I really made a mistake by concealing things from the police, I really screwed up by backing Lori all the time and never saying anything, what we heard was more like: i waited to say anything until i got interviewed by Nate so i could tell it all in a favorable light. No shame, no saying sorry, no apologies which Charles Vallows children would probably really appreciate after Lori and MormonMurders slandered their murdered fathers name all these years!! ARGH! Forgive her? yes, i do forgive her, but excuse and justify, and whitewash everything? no way!
January 31 2018
Gilbert police body camera video of Charles Vallow with police trying to get back into his home after Lori Vallow drained their account and locked him out. https://www.azfamily.com/news/continuing_coverage/missing_idaho_kids/gilbert-police-release-body-camera-video-of-charles-vallow-months-before-his-death/article_b07338c2-9a3c-11ea-8539-1795ca4cf608.html

July 11 2019
Charles Vallow is shot to death by Alex Cox.
The now deceased Charles Vallow seems to be the only other person that ever contacted police out of concern over her behavior or concern for the welfare of the children.
Not one member of the LDS church reported anything amiss ever! No one at the pool party said anything to police or anyone else publicly… Until Lori was arrested in Hawaii and now since Chad has been arrested it looks more like CYA to me and they’re all hoping no one blames them for at most aiding and abetting and at least massive indifference.
July 11 2019
Lori's Landlord asked her to move out, at least he cared!
"In a Facebook post Sunday, Vallow’s former property manager in Arizona, Joe Pongratz, said he asked Vallow to leave following the death of her husband, Charles Vallow, on July 11 at the property she rented. Pongratz was disturbed by several details surrounding Charles Vallow’s death." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZAPxq-tp2Ug&feature=youtu.be

**Lori waits around for Charle's life insurance payout, has agreed to move out of home she rented by Aug 31 2019

September 2019
Lori, Tylee and J.J. move to Rexburg.

September 8 2019
Tylee is seen for the last time.
Tylee, JJ, Alex and Lori went to yellowstone. Rexburg/Salem is on the way back from yellowstone, could they have disposed of Tylee at Chads on the way home? No one in their circle of church or friends or family reports Tylee missing.

September 19-23 2019
Melanie Gibbs visited Lori in Rexburg September 19-23 according to her interview with Nate Eaton. JJ was last seen that day- Sept 23 Gibbs said Lori was telling her JJ had become a zombie and pointed out bizarre behaviors of his that Gibbs said werent bizarre. She was at Lori's home the day that JJ was last seen, who else was there? a nanny for JJ had said she was home when Lori went to pick up her friend at the airport, maybe the nanny was there the day JJ disapeared too. Was Melani Pawlawski there? Was alex there? none of them reported anything that day, none said a word as far as i know until after Lori was arrested. Except we know that when the police went there later on September 26th to do a welfare check on the kids Melanie Gibbs was asked by Lori and Chad to say JJ was with her. She chose to not answer the phone when they called, and then apx a week later said she did let them know Chad/Lori had asked her to lie.
September 23 2019
J.J. is seen at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg for the last time.
September 28 2019
Two men, possibly alex and chad on video moving kids bikes into storage unit
End of September
Alex is seen helping Melani B/P putting kids toys, clothing, beds out on the lawn and packing her up
October 2 2019
A drive-by shooting attempt is made on Brandon Boudreaux in Gilbert, Ariz
October 2 2019
what is believed to be Chad Daybell is seen at storage unit grabbing Lori’s ass after storing tire/seat
October 2 2019
Lori buys wedding ring, its delivered October 7 2019 https://www.eastidahonews.com/2020/03/what-an-amazon-order-reveals-about-lori-daybells-wedding-ring/

October 9 2019
Tammy Daybell a masked man approached and shot at her several times with a paintball gun, interestingly he runs away to the back of her house, not down the street to an awaiting get away car or anything. https://www.eastidahonews.com/2019/12/tammy-daybell-reported-a-masked-man-shot-at-her-with-a-paintball-gun-10-days-before-her-suspicious-death/
October 16? 2019
Melani Boudreaux decides to leave the kids with Brandon and move away. About two weeks after the shooting, Melani texted Brandon that she had decided to move to Boise, according to court documents. https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/arizona/2019/12/31/gilbert-drive-shooting-tied-idaho-missing-children-brandon-melani-boudreaux-tylee-ryan-joshua-vallow/2769637001/

October 19 2019
Tammy Daybell died at home in Salem Idaho.
October 20 2019
"The day after Tammy’s Daybell died, staff at the school gathered to comfort her daughter, Emma Murray, who teaches at the same school.
“Everyone was having a hard time because it was so sudden,” Fowler said. “Everyone shared a lot of good, happy memories about her. Emma wanted to hear everyone’s happy memories because she said that is what would get her through it.”
"During the visit, Fowler and another friend told KSL that Murray also shared concerns about the state in which they found Tammy Daybell’s body. Murray reportedly shared that Tammy Daybell appeared to have pink foam coming out of her mouth." https://www.eastidahonews.com/2020/06/friends-of-tammy-daybell-express-concern-over-her-death/None of them said anything until now??? even after Chad refused and autopsy and Tammy was hurriedly buried, no one said anything even two weeks later when Chad rushed off to marry Lori Vallow in Hawaii? I get that sometimes people are unsure if they should let police or media know something , but even after the children were reported as missing no one said anything? This kind of closed in church society of hush everything up is wrong and dangerous. Jesus said its evil deeds that are kept in darkness but that good deeds are brought to the light. I hope this kind of secrecy stops and people arent intimidated to not say anything.
Also i know the county put out a statement saying it didnt matter if Chad had said he didnt want an autopsy done they would have done one anyway if there were signs of foul play, but just to keep the record straight according to the dispatcher Chad did say he did NOT want an autopsy done. Chad Daybell requested no autopsy per dispatcher https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ol6pbeSbjvY

October 22 2019
Tammy Daybell was buried in Springville, Utah

October 2019
Sometime after death of Tammy Daybell Lori took chads grown children cookies according to Melanie Gibbs.
November 5 2019
Chad and Lori are married in Kauai Hawaii
november 12 or 14?
alex and Melani go to Utah and melanie trespasses on Brandons parents property, melani arrested $1,950 bail paid by Alex. Similarly to how the family and some of the church and public responded to allegations about Lori Vallow in the beginning, Melani's family has implied that everything related to Brandon Boudreaux is 'just a custody issue' People online insist that Melani never really said anything about zombies, even though Charles Vallow has said the cult talks about zombies, Melanie Gibbs says they talk about zombies, and Brandon Boudreaux says Melani talked about them too!

November 26 2019
Police go to Lori and Chad's residence at 565 Pioneer Road in Rexburg to conduct a welfare check on J.J. at the request of his grandmother, Kay Vallow Woodcock

November 27 2019
Rexburg police executed search warrants at locations in Rexburg associated with Vallow, in an attempt to locate Joshua. As the search warrants were being executed, investigators determined that Vallow and Daybell had abruptly left their home and Rexburg.

FIRST NEWS RELEASE ABOUT CHILDREN (that I could find online)
December 20 2019
At this point there is massive news beginning to flood the internet and media because the case is so strange. But still no friends or church members or bishops or anyone is reporting anything to the police or media as far as we know. Chad and Lori are members in good standing at their church still, and remain that way at least until Lori was arrested in Hawaii, hey they may both still be members in good standing for all we know!
January 3 2020
search warrant executed at Chad Daybells home.
“Humphries would not say what the sufficient probable cause was that allowed them to get the warrant but said it is related to both the missing children and suspicious death cases.
“It’s all related,” Humphries said.”
https://www.eastidahonews.com/2020/01/police-conclude-search-at-daybell-home/

January 7 2020
Grandparents of “JJ” Vallow hold news conference, offer $20,000 reward
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62YZNJ_N5Ec

January 25, 2020
Law enforcement locate Chad and Lori on the Hawaiian island of Kauai, where they are served with a court order obtained by the Madison County Prosecutor's Office that requires Lori to "physically produce Tylee and J.J. to the Idaho Department of Welfare in Rexburg, Idaho, or to the Rexburg Police within five days of being served with the order." Millions of people around the world are watching this and hoping the children will turn up but the LDS church is silent and none of the people that are now making statements about everything they saw and heard and knew have yet said a word publicly at this point.

January 25 2020
Lori and Chad were served with court documents to produce the children within 5 days.
Jan 26th pulled over and served w/search warrant to search their vehicle and their persons, then eventually let go.
Jan. 25, 2020: Law enforcement locate Chad and Lori on the Hawaiian island of Kauai, where they are served with a court order obtained by the Madison County Prosecutor's Office that requires Lori to "physically produce Tylee and J.J. to the Idaho Department of Welfare in Rexburg, Idaho, or to the Rexburg Police within five days of being served with the order."

January 28 2020 (approximate)
Kay and Larry Woodcock file for temporary guardianship of their grandson J.J.
I wanted to include this because Lori's fans have said that Lori was hiding the kids because of a custody battle, but the custody issue wasnt even raised until 5 months after police began trying to find the kids.

January 30 2020
Lori Vallow fails to comply with court order and does not appear in front of Madison County authorities. Lori Daybell was ordered to produce the children by Jan. 30 or possibly be found in contempt of court.

January 31 2020
Colby Ryan brother of missing Idaho kids speaks out on you tube after the deadline for Lori to show the kids passes.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kdu4M5PMepQ

February 11 2020
I believe its the same church that said nothing about them being there in Hawaii while the police were looking for them. Lori Vallow and Chad Daybell seen going to church in Hawaii
“The couple has attended worship services at the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Kauai for the past two weeks. Members tell East Idaho News they approached ward leaders and said media reports about them are false and one-sided. ABC News aired footage of them walking into a church building Sunday.” previous Sunday is Feb 9
https://www.eastidahonews.com/2020/02/daybells-attend-church-in-hawaii-abc-news-obtains-beach-wedding-photos/

Feb 12 2020
Dateline shows their episode "where are the children" in Friday’s Dateline at 9/8c. Feb. 12, 2020
From beginning to end-
I find it disturbing that the only interviews people close to people that allegedly committed this horrible crime are only speaking to Mormon reporters and Mormon TV stations. "exclusive interviews" with exclusively mormon journalists makes this all look like everything is still being done in secret and all information carefully filtered through the LDS church so that the churches image is not blemished.
I forgot to mention that the FBI has been involved in this case since November 27 2019 so if any of you church people and people that knew any of the people in this horrible child murder case are inclined to speak up, its a great time to do it, call the police or the FBI and tell them what you know now before it comes out later and you look like you were involved!
November 27 2019
FBI spokeswoman Sandra Yi Barker confirmed... that the FBI is assisting with the case.
“We were contacted by Rexburg Police on Nov. 27,” Barker said. “I won’t get into details but we are offering investigative, forensic and technical assistance in Idaho and Utah. Today, members of our Evidence Response Team are in Rexburg assisting with evidence collection. Our victim specialist has also been made available to the families of Joshua Vallow and Tylee Ryan.”
https://www.eastidahonews.com/2020/01/police-conclude-search-at-daybell-home/


Related Comments (3):

--- --- Notes
Author Jake451
Posted On Sun Jun 14 22:15:12 UTC 2020
Score 2 as of Tue Jun 16 06:32:12 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 0
Body link
https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/19/us/critical-online-comments-put-church-status-at-risk-mormons-say.html
https://www.mormonstories.org/podcast/lusk-family-disciplinary-council-verdict-`disfellowship`ment/
--- --- Notes
Author Sandy2065
Posted On Sun Jun 14 21:45:56 UTC 2020
Score 2 as of Tue Jun 16 06:32:12 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 4
Body link
its interesting that Jesus had so many single women following Him and the Apostle Paul wrote about women helping in the ministry and even Philip had daughters that were unmarried and prophets, but LDS, JW's, Calvanists, Southern Baptists, Muslims and even more- all are claiming that women cant do anything or be acceptable to God without a husband... or several husbands lol
--- --- Notes
Author abigailsimon1986
Posted On Sun Jun 14 14:09:57 UTC 2020
Score 13 as of Tue Jun 16 06:32:12 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 21
Body link
I agree, they don't want to be affiliated in any way. There's a huge Mormon population in South East Idaho, it's hard not to have a Mormon reporter, a Mormon TV station involved in some way. If anything, they are probably annoyed by Nate Eaton, but disfellowshipping or excommunicating a member for doing his job would look very bad.
submitted by jw_mentions to jw_mentions [link] [comments]


2020.06.12 22:53 knill1494 I (26M) found out my wife (24F) has cheated on me for 3 of our 4 years of marriage. She is breaking UCMJ rules with her new cheating, should I just divorce her quietly or contact her chain of command?

A quick background about me. I grew up in a very conservative southern town, I'm a PK and I really love my Southern Baptist Christian roots. This post involves my religion and beliefs, but they are essential to the story. Also, I understand the post is long, I am fairly new to Reddit, so please bare with me. Thanks :)
In 2014 I was desperately searching for some sense of self-worth and a relationship. I had just broken up with a girlfriend from church and I was searching for healing in all the wrong places. I had a friend I was interested in, we will call her Cassie, and was doing everything I could to talk to her or get her to like me. She invited me to a different bible study than the one we knew each other from, and I attended a Super Bowl party they were hosting. I decided from that point on to attend that young adults church every time they met. I made many friends and got into a life group of excellent men.
Toward the end of 2014 I met a girl there we will call her Lily, I talked to her very often and shared what Christ was doing in my life. I asked her to see a movie with me and have dinner. She hated dinner because it was at her most loathed restaurant named after a spicy pepper, enjoyed the movie, and thought nothing of the night. I on the other hand was head over heels for this woman. She was totally oblivious, and I brought it up to my roommate Zach. He told me if I thought it was a date, I needed to bring it up to her to make sure we were on the same page. I asked her, she said she didn’t see it as one, but I revealed my feelings. She was ok with it but didn’t want anything to be official yet. I agreed and we continued talking and seeing each other.
In January 2015 I helped serve at a winter retreat for my church, I spoke to her while I was there, revealing what Christ was doing in my life and how on fire for Him I was. She said she was attracted to my love for Christ, and in February the day before Valentine’s Day I asked her to be my girlfriend. She agreed. We started dating and getting closer and closer, worshipping together on Sunday evenings, and attending a life group together. We had tons of adventures including a camping trip to an island with our life group. She was great fun, however there was a problem. I really felt more whole and accepted by one of my coworkers, we will call her Natasha, than Lily.
Natasha wasn’t a Christian, but held the same values, interests, and life goals as me. She also was my best friend at work, and we could talk to each other about anything. I felt torn, attracted to both women, one I could lead a promising life with, in Christ, the other could fulfill every other thing I desired in a mate. As I had my main focus on Christ, I began to press more into my relationship with Lily, and I planned on proposing to her. This is where a series of red flags popped up and I should’ve been alerted and backed off taking the relationship further.
We were on a cruise with her family for her birthday in October 2015, and I planned on proposing in private on the cruise. However, she somehow found out from one of our mutual friends, and through manipulation from that friend convinced me to change my proposal to the evening we got back from the cruise. That evening would be an open mic night at our church and all of her friends would be present. I was heartbroken I couldn’t propose to her on my owns terms because she confessed to me that she had manipulated me into changing it. I still proposed the way she wanted me to anyway, and she said yes. It was both the most amazing and devastating moment of my life up to that point.
I forgive and forget pretty quickly and moved on, to focus on the relationship and getting married. We married 4 months later, exactly a year after we started dating, the week of Valentine's Day 2016. Things went ok for a while. We lived in the same house as her parents for some time, but we both had our own jobs and life outside of there. It was basically just a place to sleep and eat. We moved out toward then end of 2016 and in with another couple from my home church. We were there for approximately 6 months before I got a job trucking with her dad.
I went to CDL school January 2017 and got my CDL the first week of February. We made it home for our anniversary and I got my CDL in my home state that same day. My plan was to continue training with her dad, then she would join me on my own truck. Her dad was hell to live with, getting mad at every slight, every inconvenience, and was very verbally degrading and abusive. I had nowhere to turn and took the brunt of it. I got my own truck and shortly after, my wife.
We began truck life together and it was bumpy. She noticed that I was doing what her dad was doing, I had no idea how to stop. I needed serious counseling and help from God. I didn’t get that help. Instead it turned worse and worse as I took out my feelings and hardship on my wife. She began to shut down emotionally, bother her physical drive and emotions had been shut down by me. I will admit I was in the wrong to force her to get birth control and for treating her the way I did. This should’ve been another huge red flag for me but blinded by pain I didn’t see it.
She sought emotional support through an online friend that we knew from a role-playing chat related to the anime Naruto. I had no idea this was going on, and it continued for nearly 2 and a half years. When we got off the truck at the end of my one-year contract I had already set up work locally and went to training the day after my contract ended. My plan was to complete training and then I could be home every evening with my wife. This did not happen. I went from being on the road with my wife every day, to now being stuck in different part of the state, and only seeing her on weekends. I became seriously depressed at this job and contemplated suicide daily. Another huge red flag.
I eventually quit that job and began searching all over my county for a new trucking position. I was diligent in applying but had no luck for a few months. I ended up working over the summer with one of my old girlfriend’s fathers. He is a handyman, and I was on good terms with their entire family except the old girlfriend. I finally found a job in July 2018 and began work. It was so nice to not be a dead beat anymore, and to be trucking again. I worked through the end of the year, but more problems started.
In November 2018 I started having bloody stools, and very frequent painful stools. I eventually had to check myself into the hospital one day after work because of the sheer amount of pain and blood. I found out I had a C. Diff. infection, anemia, and Ulcerative Colitis. I recovered over 5 days and returned to work but was not physically the same as I had lost nearly 40 pounds in that week. I worked as much as I could, but they had basically filled my position since I was having so many frequent bathroom stops, I had only 1 or 2 days a week of work.
During my hospital stay I had noticed my wife wasn’t very attentive and barely knew what to do, I felt truly alone and more depressed than ever. I went to the hospital again in the beginning of 2019 for the same issue again, but I had so much stress I felt like I was having a heart attack. I was under watch and a heart monitor for 5 days and was given the all clear. This time I definitely couldn’t return to work, so I searched for a new job. I found one and begin working the day of our anniversary. It was a good job, paid well, and I finally started feeling better about myself and was feeling less depressed.
Her friend from online, whom I was friends with as well, since I didn’t know he was the one she was emotionally cheating on me with, came into our state. Naturally we both wanted to see him, and it was a good time, or so I thought. She ended up physically cheating on me with him in moments I wasn’t present. She revealed this to me just a few days after. I was devastated, I sought emotional support for my now rampant depression, and had counselling sessions for a while. They helped, and we even saw our pastor about it. He was insisting that she needed to repent as I was forgiving enough not to divorce her immediately.
This repentance seemed to have happened however more health issues caused me to lose this job I had, and any health I had. I now couldn’t support my wife emotionally, monetarily, or physically please her. I was totally dependent on her. On top of that, she wanted me to become a swinger, and had become friends with swingers. She cheated on me with 6 men from her workplace during this time. I was unaware. I was searching for a job with vocational rehab, and it wasn’t going all that great. During this time, she managed to cheat on me with the swinger couple as well. She had been training for entry to the armed services and had gotten fit and ready for that as well.
One day after she had a private training session with her martial arts instructor, she told me she had been raped by him. The swinger couple came to help support her emotionally and help navigate us through the day of her going to get a rape kit. I was furious and wanted to go murder that man for violating my wife. He had been trying to help us with our marital issues and took advantage of her. I was extremely upset. A few days go by and I get the bomb of a lifetime.
She admitted she hadn’t stopped emotionally cheating on me with that man from earlier in the year, she had been with 6 men from her work, and she had been with the swinger couple. I was devastated and asked her to see our pastor with me and to start marriage counselling right away on top of personal counselling individually. She accepted only because I asked, not out of want or desire, and a long process of us trying to hold together what marriage was left began. I did everything I could to prove I was a worthwhile and desirable and honorable spouse by giving her yet again, the benefit of the doubt, and forgiveness. I shouldn’t have done that.
She convinced me to try to become deeply engrained in BDSM as a Dominant since she claimed she needed one, as she was a Submissive, and that I should become a swinger as well. I delved deep into this to try to hold some semblance of a marriage together. She had been working out for over a year to enter the military and I had been supportive and by her side the whole way through. She made it in a few weeks later. I sent her letters daily once she was in the military, explain my wants and desires, things I knew she wanted to hear, and how my search for other swingers was going. I was being mentored by the swinger couple, though I hated them, and trying my hardest to show my wife I was the real deal, while lying to my true self and everyone in the process.
Cue graduation from the training in 2020, and I yet again disappointed her with my words, I argued with her dad so he wouldn’t run over some people, and failed her physically, her idea of me failing physically was not making her have a “big o” during “passionate hugging”. This was super degrading as I could feel the disappointment building, but she was going to be stationed in our state so I could visit her while she was in advanced training. I saw her only a couple weeks later and another few weeks after that, giving lots of time and attention to her sexual needs, and she was happy, but wanted the swingers.
I obliged and went with them on my final trip to visit her. I watched my wife passionately hug with another man, not recommended by me, please don’t ever do this. I was devastated, though I was trying my hardest to be like that other man and be a Dominant for her. That just isn’t me though. No swinging, no BDSM, I just want my wife, and honesty and respect, none of which I had for over a year. Add the emotional cheating and 3 of my 4 years of marriage I had been lied to and cheated on. I wanted no part of it, but still desperate I tried everything to hold on.
I lost my job trying to get one of my coworkers to be a swinger, and on top of that the coronavirus hit the next week, so I wasn’t going to be getting a job anytime soon. She had also messaged me that he had come to her and passionately hugged her in ways she would never do for me and the she also might be pregnant from that hug wasn't protected and she was already a few days late for her time of the month. I was ready to kill myself but told her he would need to be fully responsible and I would still love her and the kid, but it would be his. The next week was when i had lost my job. Two days after being fired, my wife called and told me she wanted to divorce so she could be in a polyamorous and bisexual relationship with the swinger couple. However she was still being manipulative and somehow still pretending to feel remorse said she couldn't "Biblically" divorce me since I hadn't done anything wrong so I was the one who needed to do it. As if it actually mattered to her, all she wanted to do was have her cake and eat it too without facing the true consequences I was devastated, but expected this to be coming eventually, after all I had almost filed for divorce after she confessed the rampant cheating. I had even moved out and back in with parents in anticipation of this outcome. That was at least one thing I had done right.
I have been fighting long and hard with my depression and thoughts about the situation and I feel I am being strung along by still being married so I can have, essential to my life health insurance. She gets the benefit of extra pay and not having to live on base as long as she is married. She also expects me to pay half of our bills once as it would be cheaper to keep everything combined instead of going to court to split everything or changing to our own services like phone and car insurance. At this point I am done, I have always been terrified of conflict and tend to be the peace keeper in all of my friendships and relationships. i have been walked on, abused, humiliated, degraded, and tortured, while being the kindest human I could possibly be, giving forgiveness and love with no restraints in hopes it would make a difference.
I am done being nice and it is time to stand up for myself, but this is why I came here for help. I want her to have her car, but the loan and title is on both of our names and I am too afraid to ask. I also want to take control of my own bills and have a separate insurance and phone bill from her. I also really don't want to go to court if at all possible since I have poor health due to my disability and all forms of stress, physical and emotional, can cause my condition to worsen and flare up.
She also has technically broken the UCMJ laws by passionately hugging another man, and he is a higher rank so she is also fraternizing. Their relationship is still active and they have passionately hugged without me there or his fiance. I don't want to contact her chain of command, but my Psych doctor's notes have to be submitted for parts of the health insurance and they include information about her cheating, so they may initiate and investigation on their own if they review the notes. What should I do? Lots of friends and family tell me to contact a lawyer and her chain of command, but she just got in and while I want her to face the consequences, I also don't want to steal away her dreams like she had done to me. I read NuclearRevenge and ProRevenge all the time and have thought of ways to tear her life to shreds, but I am just not that kind of person. Can anyone help?
submitted by knill1494 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]


2020.05.26 05:44 MisterShag Death of a Young Friend

Hello Reddit
2 and a half years ago, a young teenage girl by the name of Shaylin tragically and unexpectedly died in a car accident. I was classmates with her for 5 years. She was kind, sweet, charming, and smart. From what I heard, she even had a soccer scholarship set up for after she graduated... but she didn’t get to graduate. Instead, she passed away just a few months before her graduation date.
Currently, I am under the influence of a man named Jim: Jim Beam. Under my current state, I can’t help but think about the short life of my beloved classmate. As somebody who has been raised in a southern baptist church, I have been led to believe that everything happens for a reason. Since God is all righteous and all knowing, it’s easy to believe that his reasoning is just, but poor Shaylin was as pure as they come. She went to church, read the Bible, went to wednesday service, and even went on mission trips to poor countries.
Over the last 2.5 years, I have contemplated as to why God would take away such a beautiful person. She had seemingly done everything right in her life, yet she died at the age of 17. I hurts me. It hurts me so much because I strongly and justifiably believe that she was more deserving of a good long life than some of the common trash you come across daily; bums, ex-cons, drug addicts, etc.
I am still a strong believer in god, but I will NEVER understand his reasoning for taking shaylin so damn early. It makes me so mad. Aside from believing in God, a prominent notion of Christianity is performing good deeds for the lesser just as Jesus did... Shaylin did exactly that. But instead of a long, healthy life - including marriage, children, and grandchildren - she received an early death.
How on earth (or heaven) can this be justified? How can Shaylin die so young, yet serial killers like Bundy, Dahmer, and Gacy live well into their 30s and 40s? It’s not right, and it doesn’t sit well with me at all.
submitted by MisterShag to religion [link] [comments]


2020.04.15 17:49 thedemocracyof I don't know what to believe

For most of my life I have struggled with my personal beliefs. My dad and step mom were Baptist, my mom was atheist, my step dad was non practicing Catholic. My grandparents on my dad's side we're hardcore southern Baptist and my grandpa was a pastor. My grandma on my mom's side was a Jehovah's witness, and my grandma on my step dad's side was a nun for a long time. It's a lot to follow but that's partially why I've always had issues on where I stand with religion.
For about 10 years or so, my sister and I went to a Baptist Church with my dad and his wife, with occasional Catholic attendances when with my grandparents. Over the years I made a couple of friends, but I also met a lot of people that were just flat out shitty. I got picked on, left out, and was generally just treated poorly. I remember being in youth group and I asked my youth pastor a question about something that I just didn't understand, to which he replied, "you shouldn't ask that, you're going to hell." At one point, the choir director had an affair with the play director. Both were married through the church and had families that attended the church regularly. Rumors were regularly spread throughout the church about all kinds of things at any given time. I finally ended up just leaving.
After I left that church I started dating a girl who went to a Methodist church, so I started going regularly with her and her family. It was great at first! They were super friendly and accepting, they welcomed questions about things I didn't understand and would help find answers if they couldn't provide them. I loved it there. But after attending for almost two years, I went and got my first tattoo. When I went to church after getting it, they started treating me differently. They said it was bad and acted like I was a different person.
I decided it was time to leave that church and decided to stay away from churches altogether. I was 18 at the time.
About a year or two ago I went through some clothes and had some stuff to donate, so I took everything to the church down the road from me. While I was there I ended up having an hour long conversation with several of the people who worked there. They invited me to come back for a service but I declined because of 'personal issues'. A few weeks went by and my father ended up passing away unexpectedly from an aneurysm. After flying back home and going back to the church I left 8 years prior, I got fucked up. I was drinking and smoking and just didn't care, but something happened and I had a moment where i felt like my dad had spoken to me telling me he was ok and was I heaven. I lost it in front of everyone crying to my sister about how dad had talked to me and etc etc.. after all of that I was definitely on edge about my beliefs and decided I needed to reassess a few things in my life. When I flew back home from my dad's funeral, I decided I wanted to at least check the new church out. So I went in for one of the services and met a bunch of the people and got to experience a new point of view. Unfortunately they just ended up asking for money about 8 times during the service and talked about making god happy. Everyone there was amazing but I didn't appreciate the service too much.
Ever since I haven't been to a church and I've been even more unsure and confused of where I stand. I know that my dad 'talking to me' was just me being intoxicated while being that stressed out, but I still think about it all the time because it was the clearest thing in the middle of a drunken, high blur.
I'm torn between god/ church, science, witchcraft, fucking pastafarianism for fucks sake. Though church has always proven to me to that it's somewhere I don't want to spend my time. The logical part of me knows that the big bang created the known universe and that we're merely just specs flying through time and space and nothing really matters anyways. The part of me that grew up with religion thinks something out there had to have created this. It had to have come from somewhere, but that contradicts itself with where did god come from? I know that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred and transformed. This makes me believe in reincarnation in a way. If the universe is infinite, that stands to reason that when I die, there's a chance the energy of my soul or spirit or whatever could be transferred to a place where the so called "heaven" could exist. There's a chance my soul/ spirit/ energy could be transferred to a place where one eyed one horned flying purple people eaters are a thing and now that's what I'm doing in my next life.
I think this quarantine is getting to me a bit..
submitted by thedemocracyof to religion [link] [comments]


2020.04.13 19:02 Janabl7 My friend (20F) just texted me saying she feels guilty about being with her boyfriend (20M)

So my one friend just texted me and said that she had been dating this guy for a couple months now, but she couldn't tell anyone about it yet. But she said that she had been having sex with him for like a month now and has been feeling super guilty about it. I asked her why, because they're both consenting adults who have control over their own lives, and she said that she really couldn't describe it.
So some background information. My friend goes to a very conservative, Christian college in the South. Now, she used to be religious, but has since realized that she somewhere between being agnostic and atheist. However, a requirement for her school is that she has to go to a religious service twice a week. Because they're Southern Baptist, they are very... strict with what they preach. So they have pounded into her head that having sex before marriage is an ultimate sin or something and that she's going to burn in hell for it. Her friends also say this too and will always talk about some "whore" who just had sex with their boyfriend or something.
This is the only guy she has dated so far and this is the only person she has had sex with. I tried to make her feel better, telling her that sex is natural and as long as she was doing it safely, it's perfectly normal. But she still says she has pangs of guilt and fear, even though she doesn't really believe in hell. I just don't know how I can help make her feel better or let her know that she's not a terrible person because this is really tearing her up inside. Any advice you guys could give would be really appreciated. Thanks guys.
submitted by Janabl7 to Advice [link] [comments]


2020.04.13 15:00 almostanglo A Baptist who is Anglican at heart

Just want to take a minute to introduce myself and tell my Anglican story. I've been reading this sub for quite a while and no longer want to lurk. I'm not really sure what the point of this post is, other than to see who else out there is in the same boat as me.
I was raised in TEC with an incredible priest and congregation. I came to know God through the liturgy and, to this day, that is where I am closest to Him.
As I graduated high school, my priest left TEC after the confirmation of Robinson (but that's not really what I am here to talk about, just a statement of fact). I went to college in a small town with no Episcopal church, so I went to a Methodist for those few years.
The next town I moved to had an Episcopal church, which I attended. However, I never fully engaged there. I felt like, knowing that my priest, whom I greatly respect, had left the church, that I could not fully be present there as a member any longer.
As I made friends and started dating a girl, I defaulted to visiting their churches. I church hopped for several years between run of the mill non-denoms.
I married a woman who grew up Southern Baptist. She no longer identified with the Baptists due to being hurt in childhood by legalism. That said, she was very uncomfortable with the idea of Anglicanism and much more at home with modern protestant churches.
Because of all this, we spent the first decade of our marriage in non-denominational congregations. At home, we had some pretty sharp disagreements on theology of things like infant baptism, evolution, etc. I guess it is just what you would expect from an Episcopalian marrying an Ex-Southern Baptist turned Non-Denom. Our disagreements were not severe, but there was always an underlying tension around the issues. My heart was always still with the liturgical church, and she knew it.
So, for those first 10 years, I let my Anglicanism fade away. In hindsight, I regret that, but it is what happened.
Around year 10, we had two kids and were attending a mega church. I never liked the way they did church, but there was a strong community, we had friends, and the kids entertainment program was great. As our oldest got into elementary school, we realized that this church was not acting like church. It hit us that our kids were not hearing the truth of the bible, but instead were getting pop-culture Christianity. We had been able to filter all that out for ourselves, but seeing our kids in it changed things and we knew we had to leave.
We started visiting around knowing that we wanted to find a church that felt like a real church, not a non-denom trying to be something different than church. That summer our kids did VBS at the local First Baptist. At this point, my wife was still pretty strongly anti-baptist but there was just something about this congregation. The legalism was not there, the community was incredible, and the teaching was truth.
We decided to visit for a few Sundays. It was with much hesitation that we did and it felt so much better than the mega church we were at. At this point, I urged us, while we were visiting, to try out a liturgical denomination. My wife was not ready for that quite yet. She was strongly opposed to it. Plus, I did not really know where to go. There was an Episcopal church but my history there made me hesitant. There was a Lutheran, which I don't know anything about. There is also an Anglican Catholic church which I visited alone. To be honest, I was shocked at how different it was from TEC I knew from childhood. I was completely disoriented and knew my wife would never be comfortable there. With all these factors coming together, we decided to move our family to the First Baptist.
With that move, I realized how much of my own spirituality I have been sacrificing. I started to understand that Anglicanism was not just a different way to do church. In the move to a Baptist church, I realized that there are massive pieces missing and those pieces, while not salvation issues, are still hugely important.
So I began to reawaken my own Anglicanism. I started by dusting off my childhood Book of Common Prayer. The Daily Office became my devotion, and I started to come alive again spiritually.
Then I slowly began to incorporate the BCP into our family life and devotion. I started by simply praying the Collect of the Day at Sunday dinner. Then, I started slowly adding elements of the church calendar and liturgical year to our family routines.
At this same time, my wife began classically educating our kids. As they began to dive deeper into the classic works of art, music, and literature, she began to realize that the liturgy was the same thing for our spirituality... and it was, in fact, better. Not that either one of us think Baptists are "wrong", it's just that they leave so much out.
Moving forward through the years, we are becoming more and more comfortable with the idea of Anglicanism in our family. We have transitioned to an almost complete Evening Prayer, fully tracking the church calendar, and we have started sharing communion with the family (that can be another post for another day, in my situation, however, I stand behind my decision).
We've been at First Baptist about 5 years now, and I tell her that I want to take the family to an Anglican church. I don't want to uproot us and move, but I want the family to experience it together. She agrees, then gets scared and backs up, then agrees again... There is a new ACNA startup in town and we visit on Transfiguration Sunday.
It is really a beautiful service, and the whole family appreciates it. I feel more alive than I have in our 15 years of marriage. That said, the kids have their entire social life tied to the Baptist church, and my wife is in no way ready to make a move. So I am trying to stay tempered and resist the urge to keep going back. I told her that I want to keep visiting, maybe once a month. She counters with every other month :)
What I really want to do is attend the Anglican church on Sundays and do all the mid week youth activities at the Baptist church. I know that won't happen soon, but the fact that we even went to one service is huge.
The last thing she said is that she knows we will probably end up in an Anglican church after the kids are gone. She knows how important it is to me, and she is starting to realize the depth and significance of the liturgy. But, it would tear the kids apart to take them out of where we are now. Plus, the local ACNA church is a very small start up without a lot of kids their age.
So that is my Anglican story. Thanks for sticking with it to the end! I look forward to no longer lurking and engaging in the conversations here.
submitted by almostanglo to Anglicanism [link] [comments]


2020.04.13 07:02 Rocknocker OBLIGATORY FILLER MATERIAL – Just take a hard left at Daeseong-dong…6

Continuing.
After the third pony keg of beer was delivered, it was decided that the next few days would be spent in the conference room discussing what we thought was the best way forward.
We wanted dry-erase boards so we could start taking detailed notes, even though I was well ahead of the curve in that regard. We instead ended up with some mobile elementary-school blackboards and a pile of grainy, sooty chalk.
Leave it to Dr. Cliff to go into a discourse on the genesis of chalk and its economic importance.
Bloody carbonate geologists.
Bloody White Cliffs.
We geologists need to punctuate their conversations with pictures, so these would suffice quite well.
At 1700 hours, the official end to the workday was called; we’d meet here again tomorrow. I’m not certain by whom, but it was readily agreed upon. We were more or less on our own until 1000 the next day. I needed to spend some time in my room with my notes and update a number of dossiers, field notebooks, and other items I was using as a running chronicle.
Several folks decided to invade one of the hotel’s restaurants for dinner. Some wanted to head to the casino, a couple wanted to get a massage, and others wanted to do what tourists are normally wont to do on the second day of being a foreigner in a foreign land.
I declined invitations to dinner and other activities, as I had a long writing session in front of me. I wanted to get this all in its proper place while the memories and notes were still fresh.
30 minutes later, in my room after a 25-minute wait for the elevator; I’m updating dossiers, creating several new ones, and updating my field notebooks. Suddenly, after an hour’s work, I notice something is amiss.
“I don’t have a drink or a cigar,” I said to the four walls. “This. Will. Not. Do.”
I was used to Happy Hour in Russia. Happy hour is slightly different; there are no ice cubes or orange-peel twists in the vodka. Also, it lasts all day.
I remedy that situation by finding and clipping a nice, oily oscuro cigar and digging the bourbon out from under my boxer-briefs in my dresser drawer. I heft the bottle and feel that it’s significantly lighter than when I left it last night. I happen to look in the trash can and spy the wrapper for a box of my festively colored Sobranie cigarettes I obtained back in Dubai.
“Hmmm”, I think, “It would appear that we have some light-fingered Cho Louies or No Louises around here. I’d best guard my supplies a little more securely.”
I move all my smokeables into one of my now emptied aluminum travel cases. They lock with the stoutest of combinations and it will be readily apparent if anyone is fucking with them.
I move some of my best booze into the pretty much worthless in-room safe. With a deft application of duct tape, I seal the safe. It may not be the most secure spot on the planet, but if anyone tries anything troublesome, they’ll leave an immediately recognizable record of what they were up to. It’s just too obvious; they’d have to be crazy to go in after anything inside there.
My money, keys, and passports are in the safe deposit box down in the lobby that the hotel supplies for visiting dignitaries. Even so, they let me keep my shit in one of them anyway.
That handled, I spend another hour writing like a madman. I suddenly realize I’m tired of all this and need a diversion as well as some food and, of course, drink.
30 minutes later, I’m down in the byzantine basement tunnels of the hotel. It’s crowded with hordes of Chinse tourists, and the casino is ground zero for the incredibly loud chatter.
I look in on the bowling alleys all three of them, and they’re full. The massage parlor is hopping, although I leave my name and they promise they will call over the PA when a suitable masseuse is available. Evidently, I ‘intimidate’ some of the more demure ones.
I wander over to the bar, now there’s a surprise, and see it’s packed to the rafters as well. I decide to wait for a seat to open up on Mahogany Ridge when there’s some gargling over the PA and a pair of Chinese nationals leave the bar in great haste.
I grab one of the two newly open seats, much to the chagrin of a couple of Oriental Unidentifiables (OU) who had their eye on them as well.
“Sorry, mate”, I said, “First come, first served. It’s the capitalist way.”
One of the pair grabs a seat and the other just stands there, looking annoyed unspent bullets in my direction. Forget that I’ve literally twice their size and could be an aberration as an angry American. They just order a couple of drinks, and content themselves in giving me dirty looks and probably say nasty things in their own indecipherable language about my national origin and familial heritage.
As if I gave the tiniest of rodental shits.
I fire up a cigar, as literally everyone else in the joint was smoking something more or less tobacco. However, there was a definite barnyard aroma, a regular Dairy Air, in the room. I think some of what was being smoked there was more bovine or equine in origin than botanical in nature.
With numerous hilarious attempts at Korean, pointing at a garishly photographed drinks menu, I was finally served a cold draft house steam porter and 100 milliliters of probably ersatz ‘Russian’ vodka, vintage late last Thursday. This bartender that could at least form some of the phonemes found in American English. A few. A definite few.
Since it all cost the equivalent of US$0.50, I really didn’t care.
Apparently vodka helps flowers last longer when they're dying. But you can put vodka in anything and it'll make it better.
Being a trained observer, I rather enjoy just sitting in any old bar, smoking my cigar, drinking my Yorshch, and watching people. I try and not be intrusive and I never eavesdrop, but I like to try and think of what strange set of circumstances brought us all here together in this place at this time. It gives me writing ideas, some of which I jot down in a notebook I always carry. It also gives me a good shot of nostalgia when I look back at something I wrote some 40 or so years ago.
Yeah, old habits do die hard.
I take a drag off my cigar and set it in the ashtray in front of me on the bar as I go to correct another egregious misspelling in my notebook. I have to immediately proofread what I wrote, or I’d never recall later what the fuck I was trying to convey; especially if it’s in a noisy, smoky, or murky milieu.
Quicker than a bunny fucks, Unidentifiable Oriental #1 (UO #1) deftly reaches over, snags my cigar, and helps himself to a few mouthy puffs.
I look at him, the empty ashtray directly in front of me, him again, and then UO #2.
Since I speak no real Oriental, much less Korean, language, and my Mandarin at this point is worse than laughable; I just point to the cigar, turn out my hands and shrug my shoulders in the international “What the actual fuck, dude?” gesture.
He just smiles a gappy, toothy, and snaggle-toothed at that, grin at me and makes a point of ensuring that I see him enjoying a few more drags on my own damned cigar.
Not able to contain myself any further, I venture a “What the fuck, chuckles? That’s not your fucking cigar.”
Like gasoline being tossed on a fire-ring full of embers, they both go unconditionally incoherently insane.
Yammering, chattering, jumping up and down, and getting right into my face. They wanted me to unquestionably understand that my few words of English insulted them far more than their filching of my $20 cigar.
OK, I’m pretty well trained in Hapkido; an oddly, given the present situation, hybrid Korean martial art. I’m at least 6 or 7 inches taller and who knows how many stone/kilos/pounds/Solar masses heavier than these two clowns. I could easily go all Gojira on their hapless asses and mop significant expanses of the floorboards with them.
Instead, I look around for the bartender. I figured since I was keeping him well supplied with Korean won via tips, and he spoke some English as well as perhaps whatever the fuck these characters were chattering; maybe he could get to the bottom of what was happening.
The bartender walks over and I ask him to ask the two unidentifiable twins why they stole my cigar.
He nods in agreement and goes on in whatever the fuck dialect was being used today by the pair.
“They say they wanted it. So they took it.” They ask, “What are you going to do about it?” the bartender relates.
I deftly reach inside my field vest, as everyone concerned ducks and covers.
I extract two fresh cigars; not a .454 Casull Magnum.
I give one cigar to the bartender and one to OU#2.
“With my compliments.” I pleasantly say.
I was well apprised of the fact that in certain places like this, the local authorities often approach foreigners with, for the lack of a better term, ‘Agents Provocateur’.
Like the Westboro Baptist “Church”, they try to get a rise out of you so you’ll lose your cool and either create a scene or take a poke at the miscreant. Then they have all the pretext they require to drag you to the local hoosegow, shake you down for every penny on your person, as well as any phones, notebooks, wallets, passports, cigars, cigarettes, etc.
Basically, they goad you into a fight, then drop the thousand-pound shit-hammer when you retaliate.
It’s all so parochial. So obviously clear as vodka; this elementary charade only raised a single eyebrow.
I’m not going to even raise my voice over a couple of cheap cigars that neither of them noticed I slipped them instead of the premium ones I was smoking.
Thus defeated, I asked the bartender to ask them if they liked the cigar.
“What do you think?” I asked in cordial English, “Too tightly rolled? Not caged enough? Too green?”
UO #2 slipped and said “It smells very good…” where he realizes he’s blown his cover.
“Yeah, I like it too.”, I replied, “So much so, I buy my own. What are your badge numbers, boys? I will be reporting this incident to Inspector P'aeng Yeong-Hwan, the head of security for the IUPGS conference to which I was invited as special scientific consultant.”
Of course, they immediately dummy up and feign illiteracy.
I say loudly and very clearly, “You bastards aren’t gonna get away with this. I mean, what is going on in this country when scumsuckers like you can get away with trying to sandbag a Doctor of Geological Sciences?”
I ask the bartender to translate, but alas, it was too late. They vamoosed when I turned to talk with the bartender.
They left so fast, they didn’t notice me snapping their pictures with my ancient but trusty Nokia 3310, revised edition, during our little chat. Even with a mere 2-megapixel picture, I have enough to show the North Korean leaders of the project to get an identification and make known my displeasure of being treated like some commoner or buffoon.
They left both my cigar and the one I gave them. The bartender tucked the cigar I gave him into his pocket and stared lustily at the two remaining on the bar.
“Take’em”, I said. I sure as fuck don’t want them. “Just a clean ashtray and a refill, if you would be so kind,” I say, as pleasantly as possible, considering the situation.
Both the unsmoked and my smoldering, as well as well-traveled, cigar disappear as quickly as minks rut. A clean, new ashtray, double beer and ‘vodka’ suddenly appear.
“No charge, Dr. Rock”, the bartender grins, as he shoves my erstwhile high-mileage cigar between his teeth.
“OK, fair enough.”, I say, “Spaseebah.”, and deposit a raft of won on the bar. The pile won’t be touched until after I leave in a few hours’ time.
“Stranger in a strange land.” I muse over a couple of further beers.
The call from the massage parlor never came, or it did and I couldn’t hear it over the clamor of the casino. I went up to the hotel’s Korean restaurant; had some salty soup, a sad, sad salad, and some form of funky fish, I think, for dinner. I retired that night in a slightly foul mood.
I called Es then the next morning and caught her before she retired. With a 14 hour difference between us, I was getting up at 0700 and she was getting ready to hit the hay at 2100.
I told her of the events of the day previous, and she was glad she wasn’t tagging along. She would have never accused the Korean geologists of being behind the times and would have probably bent the guy’s nose that swiped my cigar.
Agreed, that she’d probably be unimpressed with this place. I promised her that we’d go on a holiday when I returned from all this. It would be up to her to find out ‘where,’ and I’d supply the ‘when’ when I could.
Everything else was going along smoothly, more or less, on the home front, and I didn’t want to give the local listening-in federales too much to say grace over, so we said our parting admirations and rang off.
Shower, shower sunriser of real vodka and citrus, a quick brush and comb, and spiff of cargo shorts and new ghastly Hawaiian shirt; 30 minutes later, back down in the restaurant for the inevitable breakfast buffet.
After what some would consider breakfast and others would consider a vague attempt at nourishment, we reconvened in the conference room precisely at 1012.
Nothing like precision with this group.
We spend the next two days going over, in various groups, what we think would be required to set forth proper the quest for oil and gas in North Korea on track. Everyone got in on the act, and we advocated for that. We needed everyone’s input to make this happen. Or to even map a way forward to present to country officials. Those from the West on what was needed and those from the East to tell us what was available, and the combined wetware to make what needed to be done happen with what existed.
It took no small amount of doing, but we secured a set of maps that covered the entire country. We were watched very closely by the shiny suit squad that we did not copy, photograph or otherwise take any extraneous information from these sheets of infamy. All other maps in the country were intentionally skewed, with errors deliberately added in to confuse “interlopers, spies, or other personas non grata”.
I made a massive stink and told them that if we didn’t receive the unfuckered maps, aerial photographs and satellite imagery pronto, we’re packing up and leaving that afternoon.
“We don’t have time for monks resisting the carnival. We didn’t come here to try and guess if the maps are correct or if our remedies will actually work on maps that say one thing and reality says something else entirely.”
They hemmed and hawed, but as I made the announcement to all before lunch that if the real maps didn’t appear by the time we returned from tiffin, we’re gone.
And we take tiffin purty durn early round these parts, buckaroo.
No one was surprised as I when we returned and there were folio after folio of government-uncensored maps, photos, and imagery for our program. I guess they finally reasoned it would be a relatively good idea to begin to take us seriously.
We spent one whole day just going over our field geological apparatus. They had a good idea of how to use a direction-finder compass and Jacob’s staff to measure sections. However, they were totally flummoxed by our Brunton Compasses, GPS systems, curiously referred to as ‘position finders’, notebook mapping applications, and electronic data storage and retrieval systems.
Gad. It was like being back in the 1970s before PCs were a glimmer in IBM's corporate orbs.
We spent the next week working to bring our less fortunate colleagues up to, well, not date, but at least up to the brink of the 21st century. We explained that plate tectonics, continental drift, and the precession of the continents was accepted geoscientific principles, not some arcane Capitalist or Socialist plot to undermine the quality of science in the east.
Yep. It was that mindset we had to first conquer. I think we’ve made great headway in that direction today.
The next Chautauqua session had us split up into two separate groups. We decided in a fit of Cesarean inquiry to ‘divide and conquer’. There are two distinct milieus which are able to contain economic deposits of hydrocarbons: onshore and offshore.
Instead of attacking both head-on, we’d focus initially on the offshore domain. Once we had a good handle on what was going on under the East Korean Sea, the Huangai (Yellow) Sea and surreptitiously, the South Sea; we’d collaborate our findings and work to tie them in and extend them onshore.
The singular Phyongnam Basin is the one large depositional, sedimentological, and structural basin in North Korea. It is filled by the Joeson and Pyeongan Supergroups of sediments, which are Cambro-Ordovician and Permocarboniferous, respectively. These are good hunting grounds for oil and gas. Could be elephant–hunting country.
But before we could undertake that, we had to get ‘back to basics’. That is, we had to understand and delineate the ‘frame’ of the Korean Peninsula. In other words, we needed to figure out how and when the peninsula came into existence.
South Korea’s geology is much more complex, fortunately than that found in the North. There were nasty side comments that were due to the relative development not of the geology, but of the geologists who studied each country’s geology.
It was, perhaps, a mean way of characterizing the situation. But, unfortunately, it was also probably fairly accurate.
The Korean Peninsula is characterized by huge massifs, which are sections of a crust that are demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole. The term also refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. It’s basically one huge, semi-resilient rock.
The basement rocks of the Korean Peninsula consist of high-grade gneiss and schist, Paleoproterozoic Precambrian massifs, which formed in the early stage of Earth’s history. These rocks are unconformably overlain by metasedimentary rocks; schist, quartzite, marble, calcsilicate, and amphibolite, of the Middle to Late Proterozoic. The Korean Peninsula is floored by a collation of about five of these huge Precambrian massifs that acted like ‘microplates’ during the aggregation of the peninsula. These massifs consist of thick dolostone, metavolcanics, and schist, which were intruded by Paleoproterozoic granites.
These Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary and granitic rocks underwent repeated intracrustal differentiation, followed by the events of cratonization, i.e., regional metamorphism and igneous activity, at 1.9-1.8 Ga. Sediments deposited in the peripheral basins during the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic lead to stabilization as the basement of the peninsula.
These early depositional basins formed the locus of deposition that continued on from the Proterozoic through the Phanerozoic. There are at least three, perhaps four, depositional basins in the south which are delimited by structural zones, such as the South Korean Tectonic Line (SKTL), a huge zone of continental transform faults and forms the basis of boundary demarcation between the Okcheon and Taebaeksan basins.
The boundary between the Seochangri Formation of the Okcheon Basin and the Joseon Supergroup of the Taebaeksan Basin in the Bonghwajae area is a thrust (or reverse‐slip shear zone). This thrust is presumably a relay structure (i.e. a restraining bend) between two segments of a continental transform fault (the South Korean Tectonic Line or SKTL), along which the Okcheon Basin of the South China Craton was juxtaposed against the Taebaeksan Basin of the North China Craton during the Permian–Triassic suturing of the two cratons.
In the late Proterozoic, sedimentation was initiated in basins of the Korean Peninsula, accompanied by deposition of siliciclastic and volcaniclastic sediments as well as carbonates. The massifs were submerged in the Early Paleozoic during a greenhouse period, forming a shallow marine platform and associated environments.
The Cambrian-Ordovician succession unconformably overlies Precambrian granite gneiss. It consists of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rocks of sandstone, shale, and shallow-marine carbonates. Sedimentation was initiated in the Early Cambrian with a global rise in sea level on the stable craton of the Sino-Korean Block.
There was a major break in sedimentation during the Silurian and Devonian periods in the entire platform. During the Carboniferous to early Triassic, sedimentation was resumed in coastal plain and swamp environments with progradation of deltas.
Major tectonic events were initiated in the Triassic when the South China Block collided with the Sino-Korean Block. The eastern part of the Sino-Korean Block rotated clockwise and moved southward relative to the South China Block along the SKTL.
In the Middle-Late Jurassic, orthogonal subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate under the Asian continent caused compression and thrust deformation. A number of piggyback basins formed along the thrust faults in the east of the SKTL. At the same time, the entire peninsula was prevailed by granite batholiths, especially along the northeast-southwest-trending tectonic belt.
In the Cretaceous Period, the paleo-Pacific Plate subducted northward under the Asian continent, forming numerous extensional (left-lateral strike-slip) basins in the southern part of the peninsula and the Yellow Sea. A large back-arc basin was initiated in the southeastern part.
In the Paleogene, both the volcanic arc and the back-arc basin ceased to develop, as volcanic activities shifted eastward, accompanied by a rollback of the subduction of the Pacific plate. In the Miocene, pull-apart (right-lateral) basins formed in the eastern continental margin.
The Korea Plateau experienced continental rifting accompanied by extensive volcanism during the extensional opening of the southern offshore basin. It subsided more than 1000 m below sea level.
So, as South Korea was mix- mastered by a half-a-billion years’ worth of structural tectonism, which created several depositional basins quite capable of generating and storing economic quantities of oil and gas, the scene to the north was much more quiescent.
The North was composed, from south to north, of the relict Imjingang Belt, which was an old back-arc basin between the Gyeonggi Massif to the south and the Nagrim Massif to the north. It is a paleo-subduction zone, full of volcanics, volcaniclastics and other non-hydrocarbon bearing rocks. It was mashed and metamorphosed, and basically forms a convenient boundary between the complex geology of the South and the more relaxed geology of the North.
Heading north, we come across the Pyeongnam Basin, the only North Korean basin thus far defined that could contain hydrocarbons. Further north is the huge Nangrim Massif. It’s a huge block of igneous and metamorphic rocks that weather very nicely and form some spectacular scenery, but from an oil and gas economic outlook are worthless.
Offshore North Korea, there are two possible petroliferous basins. The offshore West Korea Bay Basin and East Sea Basin, along with five onshore basins could be offering exploration potential. At least ten exploration wells have been drilled in the West Sea, with some showing “good oil shows” along with the identification of a number of potential reservoirs.
The West Sea potentially has oil and has reportedly flowed oil at reasonable rates from at least two exploration wells when they were drilled and tested in the 1980s. Meanwhile, the East Sea has seen Russian exploration efforts previously including the drilling of two wells, both of which reportedly encountered encouraging shows of oil and gas.
Onshore, there has been little exploration to date, apart from efforts by the Korean Oil Exploration Corporation and also recently by Mongolia’s HBOil JSC (HBO). Among five main onshore sedimentary sub-basins, the largest is south of the capital; while unconfirmed reports point to a 1-trillion-cubic-foot (tcf) discovery in 2002.
Historically DPRK was thought to consist of five under-explored geological basins, the
• Pyongyang,
• Zaeryong,
• Anju-Onchon,
• Gilju-Myongchon and
• Sinuiju, Basins.
These basins are all located more or less along the coast, rather than inland. This also points to a certain degree of geological aptitude; as it’s much easier to explore along the more populated coast than it is to venture inland. There may be more hiding in the interior of the country, it’s just that no one’s looked as of yet. That’s difficult. Exploring along the coast is much easier.
With 3 basins supposedly proven to have working petroleum systems; 22 wells have been drilled and the majority are said to have encountered hydrocarbons with some wells testing production at 75 barrels of oil per day of light sweet crude oil. This has yet to be documented or confirmed by the Korea Oil Exploration Corp (KOEC), North Korea’s state-run oil company.
Yeah, our work was definitely cut out for us.
It was decided that a series of excursions offshore in one of the few remaining seaworthy, which was a real judgment call, KOEC seismic boats would be appropriate. The one we received use of was an old, decommissioned Chamsuri-class patrol boat, one Chamsuri-215(참수리-215), PKMR-215 in particular.
It had been basically stripped to the gunwales and completely retrofitted as a seismic acquisition and recording vessel. It had been renamed: “조선 민주주의 인민 공화국 영광” or “Glory of Democratic People's Republic of Korea Science”.
In reality, it was an aging rust-bucket piece of shit that might have possibly seen better days but wasn’t letting on. All the military nonsense, except the powder magazine, had been removed and a new superstructure consisting of slap-dash hunks of poorly-welded low-carbon, cold-rolled steel were erected to form a pilothouse in the area where the bridge once existed. They also built, extra haphazardly, a shooter’s room, galley, cold and wet storage areas, recording room, and storage of tapes and the extra bits and pieces needed for a none-too-extended stay on the sea. It was, being charitable, almost utilitarian.
They could not make their own water, so trip times were limited to about three days in length. Besides, they didn’t really have a hot galley, so it was cold, canned Chinese chow for the next 72 hours. They had a couple of fairly sturdy yardarms with heavy winches to handle the towed seismic arrays of geophones, which were of ancient heritage and showed it. These were probably appropriated back in the 80s or perhaps earlier when they first thought about opening their waters for seismic exploration.
They ‘borrowed’ most of the sensing and recording equipment back then from oilfield service companies and simply forgot to return it once finished. Since they burned that bridge so glowingly, they couldn’t get parts nor service when things failed. Being delicate seismic sensing and recording equipment, fail they did.
So, we had to use what was leftover, or what DPRK industries could cobble together, or what could be salvaged from salt-water drenched recording equipment that hadn’t been too heavily cared for over the span of the last 50 years.
We weren’t terribly optimistic.
So, we load the good ship ‘Rorrypop’, as Viv christened the thing, and head out to the wilds of the Yellow Sea. It was an abbreviated foreign crew, as there was really nothing other than upchuck and curse me soundly for insisting the non-geophysical scientists came along.
Aboard were the two geophysicists, naturally; Volna and Activ. I was there stick-handling the logistics and hoping to help out with the geophysical signal source explosives.
Morse and Cliff, the two other geologists accompanied us on the trip, and Dax decided to go with me as he figured I’d have access to the best booze no matter where we went.
The remainder of the team, the geochemists, Erlan and Ivan, the geomechanic, Iskren, the PT, Joon, and the two REs, Viv and Grako, remained behind onshore at the hotel. They set forth cataloging what data was available; from what sources, it’s vintage, veracity, and usefulness.
Augean tasks, both. Not as fecaliferous as Hercules’ jobs, but still, they held their own rations of shit for each sub-team.
Heading seaward, the Yellow Sea extends by about 960 km (600 mi) from north to south and about 700 km (430 mi) from east to west; it has an area of approximately 380,000 km2 (150,000 mi2) and a volume of about 17,000 km3 (4,100 mi3).[4] Its depth is only 44 m (144 ft) on average, with a maximum of 152 m (499 ft). The sea is a flooded section of the continental shelf that formed during the Late Pleistocene (some 10,000 years ago) as sea levels rose 120 m (390 ft) to their current levels. The depth gradually increases from north to south. The sea bottom and shores are dominated by sand and silt brought by the rivers through the Bohai Sea and the Yalu River. These deposits, together with sand storms are responsible for the yellowish color of the water referenced in the sea's name.
Being shallow, the Yellow Sea is more perturbed by the frequent seasonal storms of the region. The area has cold, dry winters with strong northerly monsoons blowing from late November to April. I was told that the summers are wet and warm with frequent typhoons between June and October; but now all we had to contend with were swelling seas, spraying saltwater, waggling waves, and a shivering, shimmying ship.
All the navigation, communications and other shiply duties were being handled by both members of the DPRK Coast Guard Auxiliary, mostly older guys who were of great and high humorous jest; and an actual pleasure to be around. They were like their scientific cadre on this cruise, basically a political ‘give a shit’ attitude, and a desire to get the job done, smoke the American’s cigars and drink as much as we could get away with.
The scientific portion of the cruise was being undertaken by students of the various universities and members of the North Korean national oil company. The demeanors of these characters ranged from extremely earnest and stringently North Korean politically correct in the students and academicians, to a more relaxed ‘yeah, let’s just get the fucking job done so we can have a lot of drinks’ sort of view of the older members of the DPRK scientific team.
It was a fun admixture of cultures, ages, professions, and behaviors.
Oh, forgive me for forgetting to mention our ‘guides’, or handlers. They were also chosen, nay, ordered to come along. Landlubbers all, they were less than thrilled with the assignment and inevitable seasickness; which seemed endemic to those of Oriental extraction on the cruise. However, our guides did enjoy drinking. As we learned that alcohol is a central part of Korean culture, and they encouraged us to socialize with them when the time was appropriate.
Or, not appropriate, as I was being denounced by one of the geophysical students after only a few hours into our very first day. Hell, we weren’t even in the Yellow Sea proper. We started here at Pyongyang, down the Taedong River, over the Giva Dam, through Pushover, across Shmoeland, to the stronghold of Shmoe; into the very belly of the frothing Yellow Sea.
Most everyone, other than the foreign elements on board, were either making the trip in the bowels of the ship; nursing and cursing seasickness; or by rail, doing exactly the same thing.
“Chum it over the side, ya’ blinkered mucker!”, I admonished one bottle-greenish national. “This ain’t the Captain‘s mess, Chuckles. You have to clean up your own spew!”
I was reveling in getting back out on the water and regaining my sea legs. I never get seasick.
Never.
Ever.
Be it a seismic vessel in the heaving Arctic Ocean, a pirogue in the swamps of Louisiana, my cousin’s fishin’ johnboat back in northern Baja Canada, a US nuclear submarine under the permanent pack ice of the North Pole, or VLCC in the Straits of Somaliland; I just don’t get seasick.
Airsick? Nah. Carsick? Nope. Ready to puke in a Hind-20 over the Caspian Sea during a strong local thunderstorm? Close, but no cigar.
So, I’m doing a Titanic scene recreation. Up in the very bow of the craft, standing in stark defiance of the gusting winds and blowing salt spray, smoking a huge cigar, and totting out of one of my emergency flasks while trying to hang on to my Stetson. I am also endeavoring to remain upright, field vest and really, really ghastly Hawaiian shirt billowing in the breeze.
I’m not certain if it was the cigar smoke, the wind-whipped beard, and hair, the give a fuck attitude, or the flapping of the Hawaiian shirt to which the little local geophysicist objected. But he was pissed. Olive-green with seasickness, rubber-kneed but still standing a good social-distance away, reading me the riot act in high-pitched Korean.
As I usually do in such delicate situations, I just smile and wave. Show them I’m mostly harmless and they either cool down or get pissed off even more and stomp off in disgust.
Either one was a winning situation for me in my book.
So, I return to doing my ship’s figurehead imitation and revel in the wind, spray, and feeling of really being booming. Sure, some might complain of the cold, but not me, the sting of the salt-spray or the windburn; but I eschew what most people enjoy as ‘normal weather’. I live for pushing the boundaries. I love rough weather and situations that thrust the edge of the envelope further past normalcy.
Besides, we were still in sight of land. Hell, if everything went south at this very minute, one could practically walk back to shore. I can hardly wait to see what these wigglers will do if a night storm comes up when were 100 or more kilometers from land.
The boat’s thrumming heavily from both the thrust of the Soviet-era diesel engines and the craft’s bludgeoning its way through the waves. Most hull designs are so the ship will ‘cut’ through the surface waters. This craft’s flattened trihedral hull design didn’t so much ‘cut’, as ‘slam’ it’s way through. The boat would then crash up one side and smash down the other of each large wave we encountered. The boat would shudder whole, adding a new note of resonance along with the monotonous one-note song of the aged Russian diesels.
The spray would fly, the boat would convulse, time would seem to freeze until we bashed into the next wave. The captain of the vessel took his orders very seriously. “Get to coordinates XXX and YYY by the most expedient means possible.” If that meant charging, full-throttle into the teeth of the oncoming monsoon-force wind while we were traversing the worst kelp jungle I’ve seen this side of the Sargasso Sea; well, piss on it, full steam ahead.
“Fuck it”, I thought, “Not my pony, not my show. Let’s see how this plays out.” While I light a new cigar and search for Emergency Flask #2.
After I’d been upbraided by the geophysical student for transgressions still unknown, Cliff and Dax wander out to ask me what the hell I was up to.
“Have you gone completely barmy?”, Cliff asked. “It’s a full gale out here and you’re standing in the teeth of it like it was a warm, sunny Sunday in Piccadilly.”
“Nope, not at all”, I replied, “Just reveling in the delights of an angry atmosphere.”
“He’s nuts, I told you”, Dax smirked, “He’d go anywhere and do anything to have a cigar.”
“Not just a cigar, me old mucker”, I smiled and waved my second emergency flack under his nose.
“Figures”, they both respond in unison.
Dax departs and returns mere seconds later with paper Dixie-style cups he liberated from the ship’s one head. We are going to do our very best to extend the lifetime of the onboard water supply for our scientific and military friends. I pour them each a cup full.
“Whoa, Doc”, that’s gotta be 100 milliliters!” Cliff objects.
“As the Siberian saying goes: One hundred versts, roughly a hundred miles, is no distance. A hundred rubles isn't worthwhile money. And a hundred grams of vodka just makes you thirsty. Prosit!” I say in reply.
We retire to the overhang on the fantail of the boat. It’s a sunshade and keeps the worst of the weather out for the lightweights on the cruise. I decided we’d withdraw there to keep these Dominionites out of the worst of the wind and sea spray.
“Rock”, Cliff notes, “You are a complete throwback. You do not belong here in the 21st century. You need to find a way back to the Calabrian and ride herd on the continental Neanderthals. Give them the gift of distilling and tobacco agriculture, and you’d reframe the world.”
Dax agrees, but notes if I do find a way back, he and Cliff would be selected against.
“Good point”, Cliff agrees. “Rock, stay here. We need your expertise now more than ever. Plus your ready supply of strong drink and cigars.”
“Glad to know that I’m truly appreciated around these parts.” I chuckled slightly acridly.
“Ah, Rock. Buck up. You know we’re only takin’ a piss.” Cliff says.
“Aim it starboard. Don’t want it blowin’ all over the seismic gear”, I reply, laughingly.
The trip continued, and I found a not-bolted-to-the-deck chair and moved it outside under the shade back by the boat’s fantail. I refreshed my emergency flasks and replenished my cigar supply. I’m not about to sit inside and listen to the wails and gnashing of teeth of the landlubber crowd, the patter and timor of the geophysical throng as they titter and argue about array design, nor the military hut-hutting all over the fucking boat.
A couple of times, one or more of our ‘handlers’ would venture out as I had the only supply of readily available smokeables and drinkables. Oh, we had food, lots of beer, soju, some knock-off vodka, and some of that faux homebrew bourbon for later once the workday was declared over; but for now, I was the one and only dispensary.
We’d have some random chats while they screwed up their courage to ask me for a smoke or a tot of drink. I brought several bundles of really cheap-ass cigars for just such occasions; besides, I figured one of my Camacho triple-maduros would have them chumming for the remainder of the trip. I had also many, many cartons of Sobranie pastel-colored cigarettes, and many more cartons of knock-off Marlboros I bought at the duty-free when we hit town.
It was chucklingly funny to see these harsh, military, no-nonsense characters walking their duty beats smoking pastel green, lavender, and mauve cigarettes.
We got bogged down a couple of times when one or more of the ship’s twin screws fouled with kelp as we tried to put some distance between us and the shore. Each time, one really dejected low-ranking young Coast Guard character would go over the side with a rope around his waist and a knife in his hand to free the props. I was going to object as this was moronically dangerous; but, again, not my pony, not my show. This called for full proper tethering and SCUBA gear.
They had neither aboard.
Welcome to the wonders of a centrally planned economy.
To be continued.
submitted by Rocknocker to Rocknocker [link] [comments]


2020.04.09 08:56 MWiatrak2077 america

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago.[19] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence.[20] The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories,[21] displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent.[21] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.[22][23] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power.
The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[24]
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[25] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value.[26][27] Although its population is 4% of the world total,[28] it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[29] Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.[30][31] It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending,[32] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[33]
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[34] After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans.[35] Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere.[36]
The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.[37][38][39] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[40]
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[41] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[42] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[41] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[41]
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.[43]
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[44] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[45]
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[46]
History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era
The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[19][47][48] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast[49] and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[50] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[51] The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.[52] Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America.[53]
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[54] The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida.[55] Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[56] In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming.[57]
A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo.[58][59] The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[60] Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[61] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[62]
Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[63] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons,[64][65] primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.[66][67]
While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600.[68][69] In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.[70] While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low.[68] Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.[68][69]
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[71] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[72][73]
European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[74] The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[75] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[76][77]
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[78] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[79]
European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[80] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[81][82] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[83][84] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[85]
With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies.[86] All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[87] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[88] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.[89]
During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[90] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[91]
In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[92] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[93][h]
During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[95] Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months.[96]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[97]
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day:[98] "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'".[99] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[98]
Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781,[100] Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[101]
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[102][103][104] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[105] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[106]
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[107] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[108] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[109] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[110] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[111]
American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States.[112] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[113] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[114] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[115] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[116][117][118][119] and the creation of additional western states.[120] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[121] For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture.[122] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[123] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[124]
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[124] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[125] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[126] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[127] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[128] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[129]
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States
Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[130] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[131] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[132]
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[133] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[134] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[135] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[136] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[137] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[138]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals[139] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[140] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[141] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[142][143][144]
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[145]
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[146] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[147] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[148] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[149] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[150]
U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[151] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[152] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen"[153] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[154][155] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[156] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[157]
Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[158] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[159][160] The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[161][162] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[163]
Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[164] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times.[165] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[166] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[166] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[167][168] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[169] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[170][171][172] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[173]
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[174][175][176][177][178] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[179]
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[180][181][182][183] This brought about unipolarity[184] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001
One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[185]
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[186] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[187] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[188]
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[189] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[190][191] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[192] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[193][194]
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[195] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[196] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[197] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[198] Barack Obama, the first African-American[199] and multiracial[200] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[201] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[202] and a relative decline in unemployment.[203] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[204] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[205]
President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
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2020.01.27 13:03 jw_mentions /r/Documentaries - "Infiltrating Scientology (2019): Two YouTubers sign up for Scientology and record what they go through with a hidden camera. This is episode one and there's several more on their channel."

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Submission Infiltrating Scientology (2019): Two YouTubers sign up for Scientology and record what they go through with a hidden camera. This is episode one and there's several more on their channel.
Comments Infiltrating Scientology (2019): Two YouTubers sign up for Scientology and record what they go through with a hidden camera. This is episode one and there's several more on their channel.
Author hackopsv2
Subreddit /Documentaries
Posted On Mon Jan 27 05:23:53 UTC 2020
Score 4048 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Total Comments 304

Post Body:

n/a - not a self post

Related Comments (14):

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Author ashtastic3
Posted On Mon Jan 27 07:46:09 UTC 2020
Score 1203 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 311
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Same for Jehovah’s Witnesses. The us vs them mentality and level of manipulation and trust they have in their members could definitely turn into a terroristic group very quickly.
Edit: Wow, thanks for the award! I wasn’t expecting such a huge response on this comment. Please note I’m not saying they’re a terroristic group but that they could be given their undying faith to the governing body to follow out the orders they assign.
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Author genericdude999
Posted On Mon Jan 27 23:27:50 UTC 2020
Score 32 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 6
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Except the best commercial for not becoming a Jehovah's Witness is seeing they make you go door to door forever. No thanks, I'll just be a low effort Unitarian or something.
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Author Reload_Mechanics
Posted On Mon Jan 27 14:08:42 UTC 2020
Score 20 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 11
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I was raised as a JW and can confirm it's a brainwashing cult. I wouldn't worry about them becoming a terrorist group though do to the internal workings of the belief system, they are more likely to take the mass suicide route.
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Author gmtime
Posted On Mon Jan 27 12:12:11 UTC 2020
Score 51 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 15
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A group that might turn into a terrorist group is not a terrorist group. It would be really scary if we treated them as if they were, and it will turn your country into a police state really fast. Just look at how "subversive elements" were treated in the USSR and are currently in China.
Don't get me wrong, the JWs are a sect. But treating all sects as terrorists is a very bad thing to do.
Keep in mind what terrorists are: a group that performs actions with the intent to induce fear (terror) into the general population.
A group that induces fear in the government is not a terror group, it's an organized militia. This is the exact reason for the second amendment: the government should fear the people, so they will not go corrupt and serve their own goals over that of the nation.
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Author CoffeeCubit
Posted On Mon Jan 27 13:43:14 UTC 2020
Score 29 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 8
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As this Holocaust Memorial Day, let's remember that the Nazis sent Jehovahs Witnessses to the camps because they refused military service, refused to give the Hitler salute, etc. etc. We may not like their beliefs or methods but let's recognize they have guts.
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Author thethrowawaystar
Posted On Mon Jan 27 19:01:27 UTC 2020
Score 24 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 1
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When I would go door to door I was told god would protect me and that the ones that do not listen to reason are going to die in armageddon. See I was told it doesnt matter if you convert them it only matters that you told them so you would not have blood on your hands for letting someone who doesnt know jehovah die (so god was still gonna kill them it just would be my fault for not talking to them)
We would wake up at 6 meet up at 7 and start ministering by 8, and we would put in HOURS of work, and after getting yelled at, slammed in your face, flashed, and threatened especially as a kid you begin to believe the world is truly truly evil.
I live in a NYC public housing area so already dangerous, people who were gang members and drug dealers just were a part of my neighborhood. But still from 4-15 at least 2 Saturday's and an hour on most Sundays I would be with 3 other people and we would start at the top floor and work our way down. Once in a building close to mine we knocked on a door and the man who opened it was fully naked and had a knife. If I didnt fear people who weren't of my religion before I sure did now.
Sometimes we would lie only the kids though to get into buildings where they didnt want solicitors "Hi we are trying to get to apartment 4C but the buzzer is broken " Nobody says no to a kid.
This hit a sour spot in me God I fucking hated being a minister.
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Author Shaggy0291
Posted On Mon Jan 27 18:12:44 UTC 2020
Score 92 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 10
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Whoever came up with Jehovah's witnesses is clearly something of an evil genius.
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Author the_adjusted
Posted On Mon Jan 27 10:53:29 UTC 2020
Score 895 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 202
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There was a study on Jehovah's by someone who studies cults and the reason they go knocking door to door, to 'spread the word' is not to actually spread the word, but to alienate the members from society.
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Author punchthedog420
Posted On Mon Jan 27 14:12:45 UTC 2020
Score 97 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 21
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Once, when I was in high school, a JW knocked on my door. It was about 1 in the afternoon on a weekday. My house was close to the high school and was a hangout place. Our school had weird flexible schedules, so students had time off from class at all times of the school day, so there were always people hanging out.
Anyways, he knocked, and I answered. I was high as a kite. He introduced himself as a JW, and I knew exactly who he was and what he was selling, but I was high as fuck and curious. So, I listened to him for about an hour. In the background was a smorgasbord of 1990s high schoolers coming and going. In the end, I thanked him, and he left. I don't think he even tried to "convert" me, I think he was so pleased someone would listen to him.
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Author Rastapopolos-III
Posted On Mon Jan 27 18:11:38 UTC 2020
Score 44 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 16
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One time I was round at my parents house and they were out, couple of JWs knocked on, I invited them in, made them a tea, talked about the bible for about half an hour, and told them they were welcome back anytime. I also gave them my step-dad's name as mine. Hilarious.
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Author Charnathan
Posted On Mon Jan 27 15:13:37 UTC 2020
Score 17 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 6
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I was also raised as a JW until 2004. They aren't ever going to be terrorists or suicide(body is a temple... blah blah). The worst thing they will do is convince you not to vote, not to accept blood transfusions, go to college, or talk to family/friends who've been disfellowshiped(shunned).
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Author Paradigmfusion
Posted On Mon Jan 27 14:22:57 UTC 2020
Score 17 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 1
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I used to date a excommunicated JW, it was hilarious when she explained it to me. The leader said the end of the world was going to happen in the 20s, followers sold all their stuff expecting the end of the world, it didn't happen, the church got rich and followers were screwed, it happened again in the 30s, 50s, 60s and 80s. Everytime followers would sell all their stuff and give their money to the church expecting the end of the world that never came.. now whenever a JW comes to your door the end of the world is now "soon" instead of a set time.
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Author PukyLover
Posted On Mon Jan 27 13:36:42 UTC 2020
Score 14 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 6
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I went to a JWs meeting once with an uncle and cousins, when I was a young kid, I couldn't stay awake it was so long and boring!
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Author NeuroticLoofah
Posted On Mon Jan 27 18:42:57 UTC 2020
Score 57 as of Wed Jan 29 05:24:04 UTC 2020
Conversation Size 0
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My dad loves when Jehovah Witnesses come. He's a retired Southern Baptist bible thumper and no one ever wants to discuss theology with him. He gets wound up like a crazy person and starts screaming scripture and turning purple.
I am pretty sure his house is on the do not visit list now.
submitted by jw_mentions to jw_mentions [link] [comments]


2020.01.19 07:17 CNA_AgnosticAlumni Last year I was supposed to be a Catholic seminarian. Now I am an agnostic college student

Currently procrastinating on an assignment due later but figured I’d get this all of my chest. I frequent this sub however this is an alt account because of some people who follow my main reddit account from high school. You'll understand why if you decide to read all of this. I will preface this by saying I have never told anyone including family and friends all of what I'm about to share. I will warn I will cover stuff that I did that I’m not proud of and could possibly be triggering but I hope that others can learn from my mistakes and issues. I also apologize now for the long length but I feel it's necessary for my deconversion story and for the project. I truly do hope maybe this can help someone someday. So please grab a beer and cigar, sit down, and enjoy yourself and take away what you can!

I was born into a culturally Christian family and have grown up in the Deep South. My dad was raised Baptist and Lutheran but doesn’t really talk about God and isn’t really overtly religious. Mother is a cradle Catholic along with my sister who have recently became more devout. I was baptized into the Catholic Church and made my first communion. The first 12 years of my life I knew about the beliefs, kept them to myself, and just tried to live a good life, follow the rules, and be kind to others. I didn’t try to evangelize to anyone and found that stuff to be weird. At this point in my life I found church boring but passed the time by altar serving and helping out the priest and deacon during mass.

Then came the 7th grade. I was doing well in school if you overlook that I was eating lunch once a week at school because the other 4 days of the week I was constantly retaking math tests and quizzes I had failed because I couldn’t understand the material. I was constantly a chapter behind and it was really taking a toll on me mentally and physically. My middle school was more on the rough end and I’ve always been sensitive so I didn’t really feel safe there along with constantly getting sick. My friend group was also falling apart which caused arguments, stress, and a couple instances of bullying between us (funny enough we are all great friends to this day).

In response, towards the end of my first semester, my parents took me out of public middle school and enrolled me in a Southern Baptist private school down the road that had just recently opened. It was cheap for private school standards and the education didn’t follow Common Core Standards (the teaching style and content was why I wasn’t doing well) so it was a fresh start for me. All I knew was I was now in a private school but I didn’t really notice until I started though that this school was different than what I had expected. They did prayer before every class, I had to memorize chunks of Bible verses and learn all about religion, I had chapel once a week, and things just were very different but i just went along with it. I began learning that I was different from the other kids. I was asked about “am I saved” which I had no clue what that meant and after asking me questions they realized “Oh you’re Catholic! You have some stuff wrong but that’s ok!” Teachers seemed to really take interest in me and gently hinted toward me that I’m in the wrong and I need to convert.
Looking back I realized that I was in the beginning stages of brainwashing by my 8th grade year. After losing a former classmate from public school to a gun accident, I put the blame all on myself despite me not being close to him by any means. My mentality was as follows: "It's all my fault he's dead. I should've never left public school. I could've befriended him, stopped him from getting high and get him away from those bad people. I could've converted him and saved his soul. It's all my fault." I broke down in tears while offering s prayer request for his family and his soul. I was sent to the headmasters office (the pastor of the church that ran the school) and broke down crying explaining what had happened. He offered his condolences but asked if he was saved and I told him I didn't know. We prayed and then sent me off.

That year I also began to develop a massive porn addiction to help me suppress the pain of losing someone despite never truly knowing them (something I didn't realize until sophomore year of high school and porn I still somewhat struggle with). I also discovered a few weeks after discovering porn that while I enjoyed exploring my body and my sexual interests, that I was committing mortal sin and as a result, was damning my soul to hell. I was horrified and distraught. In my mind I carried a horrifying secret that nobody knew and I would never see my family or friends in heaven. No matter how hard I tried to stop, I couldn't. At night, I would tie my hands with some old rope in my closet and bite my hands to keep myself from masturbating. But the more I obsessed over it, the more I did it and eventually every night I masturbated, I would silently cry myself to sleep begging god to spare me from hell and to make it stop. This in the end, kept digging me into a deeper hole of depression, anxiety, and constant pain. I felt I was hurting others, myself, and most importantly god. I lost all trust and self confidence in myself. As a result, I began making creepy comments (earning me the nickname: School Shooter) to push others away in hopes they wouldn't get close to me and befriend me, otherwise I felt I would lose control and end up hurting them. I would never do that mind you but I felt I couldn't trust myself because of my grievous sin and that satan had control over me. I'd rather hurt myself than others and that is a mentality I still carry with me to this day.

That 8th grade year we were also encouraged in chapel to cut off non-Christians and those who had different views and lives from us because they were of the devil and the devil could use them to pull us away from god and hurt us. Public school was a awful place for us Christians because they would begin to persecute us around this age range if we attended. As a result, I began cutting off old friends from public school and began to have a "us vs. them" mentality. I surrounded myself with my classmates and friends from my school. While most them seemed like they accepted my faith and were true to what they preached, they were far from it. I also should note that it was around this time I was beginning to be involved in online group chats on an app on my phone that a childhood friend put me in. I was 14 at the time and these online people became my new way of venting online and helping me feel connected to an outside life from my school. However, it was sketchy. It was 13-15 year old guys and girls across the country with 18-21 year old guys. We would role play anime stuff online which some of the older guys made sexual with the girls.

Through this process I met a wonderful girl I'll call K. K was around the same age as me and I had started to get involved with Snapchat. We got connected via childhood friend I kept up with and became closer friends. It was around this time after some really sketchy sexual shit went down that me and many others around my age cut ties and left the group chats. One night I was crying and sent her a photo to reply to a message K had sent me. I thought I looked fine but she could tell I was upset. After almost having a panic attack but with her being very patient and kind, I opened up to her about my pornography, fears, behaviors, etc and was weeping so hard I couldn't breathe. But instead of casting judgement and saying how I was dammed (like I led myself to believe) she comforted me. She would stay up all night many days talking to me, comforting me, getting to know me better, and asking me stuff to get my mind off of my guilt and my addiction. She told me how I wasn't a bad man. How I was good, how I should be loved for who I am, and to not be so hard on myself. That it was completely normal at this age despite what I had learned. It was then I learned that you could be a good person and not have to be religious. We still talk to this day almost 5 years later.

Freshman year rolled around and I was only more depressed, angry, and anxious. I would act out and be furious anytime I was around my parents and felt I would explode. I would be on LiveLeak a ton and became very sadistic because I was so numb mentally and emotionally that seeing others pain was the only way I could feel anything. I hated myself and at one point got so upset I grabbed my pocketknife and was ready to begin slitting my wrists. I stopped myself but felt I was a failure and a pussy because I couldn't go through with such a simple task. K, and a handful of friends I had outside of my school is the only reason why I didn't go down that rabbit hole for much longer, and am why I'm still here.
This was also the same year I began to become indoctrinated with Y.E.C. by my very evangelical biology teacher. I learned evolution was from the devil, Darwin and scientists hate god and want to bring others with them to hell by making up lies, and that biblically, dinosaurs and humans coexisted together before the flood. I also had a bible teacher who taught us that there was a massive sphere of water in the Earths atmosphere which allowed humans to live longer before the flood, and that pre-flood humans possibly had more advanced technology compared to humans now. I ate it up and truly believed it.

Then we had our freshman retreat. This is when the whole high school go to a bible camp overnight to learn more about the faith, pray and play together, and reignite our faith. That night we had a campfire after our evening chapel that was very emotional. Everyone was converting, telling their deepest secrets while crying, and I felt I needed to do the same. I felt the Catholic faith was not true and was about to convert when it felt like a hand gently put itself on my shoulder and a voice told me "Not yet. Look at your side first then make the choice." So I stayed silent and cried with everyone else. I felt even worse because I was taught at school that if you denied god you were damned to hell permanently and I had denied what I felt was right which was to convert. Looking back at that night I feel it was my conscience telling me that because I felt it was right to stick with my family and their faith. Combine that with sleep deprivation (my fault), high emotions, and peer pressure/hive mentality, this was probably why I experienced what I did.

When I came back home, I felt depressed and angry at myself from that night but figured if I was going to convert, I would wait until after I received the sacrament of confirmation. After receiving confirmation, I decided I would begin to study the Catholic faith. What was minutes turned into hours and before I knew it, I was studying all about Catholicism 7 days a week for at least 3 hours a day. From websites to reddit, I was constantly browsing online all about Catholic doctrine, dogma, and disciplines and while I still believed in the ridiculous pre-flood theories, YEC, and that science was evil, I was convinced the Catholics had it right and now I was furious. I felt I was lied to by my school and I wanted answers. So I began to pray and debate.

During Bible class and English, I began to debate the Catholic side while they debated one of their many Protestant perspectives. Seeing different Protestant views contradicted each other, I became more engrained in my faith, seeing my faith as whole, unified, and truly objective. But I did it originally out of good fun and so I could learn more. My teachers and myself enjoyed the challenge and they were awesome. They wouldn't shut down my questions they actually would begin to ask me the Catholic perspective when different stuff came up. For that, I am truly grateful.

As for the prayer and devotion aspect, I was consumed. I would pray for an hour a day. I began doing rosaries, chaplets, Liturgy of the Hours, Eucharistic adoration, and confession weekly sometimes even multiple times a week. I began fasting on Fridays and all during Lent. Hell, I even refused to eat my birthday cake one year because it had ice cream in it and I had given up ice cream for Lent. My parents told me to not take things so seriously but the combination of school and what I read online taught me that it was all or nothing when it came to the faith, so I continued to be more heavily involved and gave it my all. When I got confirmed, the bishop talked about how important the sacrament of confirmation was to receive and how God calls us to different services and some to the Church in its role of priesthood. He proceeded to tug on me and 2 other guys necks with his shepherd cane in front of the congregation while he was talking about priesthood and how some of us may be among those called to its path. This was seen as a prophecy among the youth group (I joined my sophomore year) and to the congregation that I was destined to become a priest.

In regards to my devotion, it wasn't all sunshine and rainbows. Each time I masturbated or watched pornography, my heart would drop and I'd get really upset (I covered that earlier), so I would get my parents to drive me to confession. They never knew why I was starting to become so devout and were concerned about me confessing so frequently but I refused to tell them anything happening in my life (and truth be told I never did even to this day). They knew something was off because of how upset and angry I was constantly but they saw my faith was helping with that, so they drove me. After confession, I'd come out crying tears of joy. But on the way back home, I'd sit in the back of the car and pray God would let a deer or car hit us and kill me and only me. I prayed to die constantly because I felt I'd rather have my life snuffed out while I was in a state of grace and be able to go to heaven than to fall into mortal sin and die and burn in hell forever.

Sophomore year: At this point (as just mentioned) I had joined and became heavily involved in Catholic youth group. I was seen as a great teacher in the group both among the youth and the adults. I would teach lessons, talk with adults and youth about the teachings of the faith, answer their questions, and pray with them. I became heavily involved with altar serving and started to throughly enjoy mass. I still struggled with depression over porn, masturbation, etc but had started to get control over it all which I gave credence to my steadfast devotion to God and His Church. That March I actually stopped masturbating and using pornography. But it was forced and it was definitely a form of repression. Despite this, I remained this way for over 1 1/2 years. I also gave up nonchristian music thanks to my school. But everything felt forced so I prayed more, fasted more, began to engage in small acts of self mortification (punishing oneself physically) to help me become more holy. It was around this time I began to become a radicalized traditionalist (FOR THE SAKE OF LENGTH I WON'T GO INTO THIS I PROMISE I'M ALMOST DONE!)

That year, my class had the opportunity to help a church by babysitting the parents kids. The families lived in a poor area with most of them being illegal immigrants. I was extremely alt-right and was angry but I did it anyway. I realized though that these are people too and I'm no better than them and they are the same as me in a different situation. I realized everyone no matter who or what needed Jesus. It was at this point the seeds began to grow and the thought entered my mind: "Should I become a priest?" My hatred from that day towards others began to die out. I began to try and associate myself with others, learn and respect their beliefs, so I could better love others, understand them, and try to show them the gospel.
Long story short, met with a seminarian (a priest now) who helped solidify my decision to move toward priesthood. I continued to debate at school but was also super angry toward Protestants and was determined to defeat their heresy. But through all of this, sections of my beliefs began to die out. My science teacher to this day, is an antivaxccer and we had to debate vaccination versus non vaccination and that's when I realized my YEC teacher was crazy and I began to doubt what she had taught me. I taught myself evolution, learned both sides of the arguments, looked up Catholic teaching on evolution and Old Earth theory and came to believe in that aspect of science.

Junior year: joined a sport team, met a girl named C who just transferred to my school, became great friends, and went on dates (should've asked her out looking back at it). I found out she was atheist, nerdy, and a party animal who was looking to give Christianity another chance. Taught her the Catholic faith, went to mass twice a day: once in the morning with my family and once in the evening with her, her mother, and her father. C taught me critical thinking, and showed me my school was not what it all seemed to be. Yes the theology was shit but so were the people preaching it and acting holier than thou. My hatred for my school grew from not just the theology it preached, but to the people putting up the fake act of faking being Christian. C taught me to have self esteem and self confidence, that it wasn't a bad thing and wasn't a form of pride. My depression began to slowly dissipate, my faith was on fire, and I was even more invigorated for priesthood. Combine that with a week long internship with my parish priest, meeting with a traditionalist seminarian, and the youth group, friends at school and those from my church saying I seem destined for priesthood, I was hellbent and felt it was my true calling. I became more confident, more sociable, and became popular for my kindness and faith. I went from my nickname being "School Shooter" to "Lil Pope" (a nickname I'm still called to this day!)

In the end, things didn't work out with me and C. We lost touch. She and her family stopped attending mass, school drama between juniors and seniors involving her took hold of her time and energy, some stuff went down with us (nothing bad, just complicated), and she left at the end of the year but the lessons and support she taught me never did. I began to question everything, look at both sides (but engaged in confirmation bias). Even though we aren't on the best terms, I still see her at college from time to time and sometime I'd love to catch up.

Senior Year: I began to feel uneasy about my faith toward the end of my junior year. I didn't feel peace and happiness. All I felt was anger, pain, and depression about myself and that I wasn't good enough for God. I became very scrupulous, reopened an addiction to porn and masturbation but not nearly as much as it was back in my earlier years. I felt I was repressing my inner and true self. I felt I was missing out on life, throwing away friends, family, activities, and normal stuff for the sake of avoiding near occasions of sin. Questions plagued my mind. More sex scandal stuff came out about Pennsylvania, and my faith started to break down despite me doing everything right. I prayed, I fasted, I went to confession, I did everything I was already doing but all these questions, doubts, and wondering if this was all real began to hit me.

LAST PART OF THE PROJECT IM ABOUT TO BE DONE

December came. By this point I was so lost and confused. I had at this point received go ahead by the dioceses to begin the application process. I applied to a couple of colleges beforehand but saw it as something I wouldn't need. I opened up the application PDF and the moment I started typing in my info, I realized this isn't what I wanted to be. I didn't want to be celibate, I couldn't take this lifestyle of Catholicism anymore. I felt miserable, angry, and uneasy about everyone other than my specific group of rad-trads, my specific way of thinking, and it all just collapsed. I turned my computer off, and never reopened that application and later deleted it.
I decided I needed a break because I was angry at my own parish now because it wasn't traditional and no one other than one other person at my church fit my specific views of the faith. Combined with seeing hypocrites at my own church, most of my youth group being fake, and now knowing more than everyone including my own priest when it came to the history, doctrine, dogma, and disciplines of the Church, I began to see so many holes that couldn't be ignored.
For a short while I declared myself atheist, not because I didn't believe in God, but because I needed an excuse to go to parties and hang out with people I normally didn't. We were taught everyone believes in God and atheists believed deep down but denied it all, so I thought it fit what I was feeling. However, due to peer pressure at my school (no one knew however about my faith), and being scared of hellfire and pain, I came back to the Church. Despite this, no matter how hard I prayed to get my faith, steadfastness, and holiness back, it never did. Prayer seemed exhausting and painful. My prayers had to be 100% perfect and if I messed then I'd restart and retry until I got it perfectly right.

In an effort to get me motivated to research and defend my faith as well as learn about other perspectives of life, I bought the God Delusion, Why Evolution was True, and Age of Reason. I devoured these books and was dumbfounded. The more I read the more questions popped into my mind that I couldn't find satisfactory answers for. I already knew a ton about Islam and Judaism and have a whole encyclopedia on different philosophies and wondered: Why Christianity? Would I have been Christian if I was born in a different country? If this is God's Church, why all the scandals and why the Inquisition, why the Crusades? How can we even prove this God is the right one compared to the 100's that existed previously? What about Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Zorostriansim, etc. Some were more popular and existed for longer periods of time compared to Christianity? What about contradictions in the Bible?

Graduation and College: I tried getting back into my faith during college, and by the end of my first month at college, I stopped trying. I was officially done with the Church when I saw the hypocrisy and absolute hilarity of the failure which is the Amazon Synod. I couldn't defend the Church's actions now and realized all my arguments for their past atrocities and issues couldn't hold up either. I realized my prayers which I prayed for so long such as the conversion of specific souls, and other things seemed useless and nothing happened.
With that, I prayed one last prayer: that God would reveal himself to me, give me comfort, and explain what was happening and revive my faith in a way others could see and show Himself to others in a way that could be proven scientifically and objectively. Despite praying this prayer multiple times, I never got a response and with that, I stopped praying. I stopped going to mass. If God loves me so much that he would die for me, then surely he would pursue me.
I told my parents I was taking a break and wanted to try and find myself and look at other perspectives of life and the world and they approved and wished me luck but hope I do come back to the Church. The more I learn about science, medicine, psychology, and the more I live my life without this bubble, the more free I feel and the more questions pop into my mind. For once I feel at actual peace and I desire to help others and learn more about myself. I get sad, nervous, and melancholy over my old life and what I had sometimes and wonder if I'm making a grave mistake but I've come to realize I need to greatly heal and live life. The more I do, the more everything I learned seems to be false and the more questions I develop.

I also talk with a friend from high school who's a Bible major and our discussions have been interesting. Yes he wants me to come back to the faith but wants me to have a reasoned faith so him and I debate. It's sad how any sources I show him critiquing the faith and asking questions that he finds unnecessary to be dismissed as "untrue and being overly critical". He refuses to give me any acknowledgments of my position which sucks but I used to be the same way so I understand.

Now I'm better than ever and feel happy and at peace. I've become great friends with alumni from my school who graduated before me and went through it all just like me, and they've taken me in, shown me love and acceptance, and helped me find myself and have fun. They feel the same way and know how to help me and show me there's more to this life than the society and the stuff we were taught at our old school. Nobody but one person from my Church ever attempted to contact me since I stopped showing up to ask what is going on but honestly I'm done trying to explain myself so I never responded. I'm not ready to debate my position but I'm soaking up all knowledge that I possibly can and am very wary of churches as they seem to have cultish behavior when it comes to the congregations and pastors. Especially looking at it now from the outside.



To finish this, I ask of you to leave with one thing: Don't give up and don't feel your work and time with others is for nothing. Seeds were planted in me that grew with time and love that made me into who I am today. No matter who someone is, always show them love and try to help if you feel comfortable doing so and when you feel you can. I probably need therapy but honestly I feel amazing ever since I decided to leave that lifestyle, behaviors, and mindset behind many moths ago and truth be told, I don't intend to look back. I live for the moment and for the future and respect the past and try to learn from it.

Now I try to help my sister as she loves the school and her friends there. The school has watered down a lot of what it used to do thanks to more public notoriety, staff changes, and more students. You may ask, "Why didn't you leave and why aren't encouraging your parents to pull your sister out?" I feel she is happy there and the school and teachings are much better than what it was before they started cooling down by the end of my sophomore year. I'm still great friends with some of my former teachers who still work there but they do not know (as far as I know) that I'm no longer religious. My parents know stuff has happened there from talking to me and friends but still feel my sister will do better at this school compared to public which I understand. I will be gentle and always be there for my sister as she’s very similar to how I used to be when I was younger and I feel I can gauge where she's at and help her and help my parents help her.
"Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, today is a gift. That is why it's called the present."
Thank you all for reading, hope this benefits the project!
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2020.01.15 11:00 DestroyerOfDates Humanitarian Day

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2020.01.04 19:58 ZappaOMatic [OC] The inaugural NASCAR Strictly Stock race: Where are they now?

TL;DR: Mostly but (probably?) not completely dead
On June 19, 1949, the NASCAR Strictly Stock Division took to the dirt of Charlotte Speedway for a 200-lap showdown. Little did those in attendance know that this was the start of something special: the birth of the NASCAR Cup Series.
But what happened to the 33 drivers in the field for that race? What are they up to? Let's find out!
This isn't going to be a comprehensive bio of the drivers, but rather just a brief mention of what they did before the inaugural race, how/why they entered, and what happened since (and if they are alive or not). Amusingly, this post came too dangerously close to the character limit before I could even finish the top 20, so I had to split the rest of the field as a comment below.
1. Jim Roper
The first-ever winner, Jim Roper took the victory in rather controversial circumstances as original race winner Glenn Dunaway was disqualified; Roper, who finished second and three laps down, was declared the winner.[1]
The Great Bend, Kansas native found out about the race while reading a comic strip from Zack Moseley's The Adventures of Smilin' Jack. Interested, he acquired a 1949 Lincoln Cosmopolitan from local dealer Millard James Clothier Sr. and supported by Charlotte dealership Mecklenburg Motors.[2][3]
He would run just one more NASCAR Strictly Stock/Cup race in his career, a fifteenth-place run later in 1949 at Occoneechee Speedway.
Roper later returned to Kansas, where he continued racing in IMCA-sanctioned events and jalopies. A serious injury in a 1955 crash ended his racing career (outside of a one-off at the Kansas State Fairgrounds in 1961). He eventually settled in Texas and raised horses.[2]
He died on June 23, 2000 at a retirement home. He had been battling cancer and heart/liver complications in his final years.[2][3] His gravestone at Halstead Cemetery mentions his Charlotte win (though in this 2009 photo, it states Charlotte Motor Speedway, which is not the same track).
2. Fonty Flock
Runner-up to Roper, Fonty Flock drove a 1949 Hudson in the race.
In 1949, Fonty Flock won the NASCAR Modified championship. Entering the Strictly Stock inaugural race, he was dominating the standings with over 300 points on second-placed Curtis Turner.[4] Just two years before, he was named the first NASCAR (then the National Championship Stock Car Circuit) champion.[5]
Flock ran the inaugural race with his brothers Tim and Bob, and the three were also joined by their sister Ethel Mobley the following round at Daytona Beach. The Flock family was NASCAR's premier family during the 1950s, with Fonty famously winning the 1952 Southern 500 in Bermuda shorts and eventually leading the fans in singing "Dixie" while standing on his car's hood.[6]
He would win 19 races in his Grand National career before retiring in 1958.
Flock died on July 15, 1972 after a bout with cancer.[5]
3. Red Byron
I don't think Red Byron needs any introduction. A World War II B-24 Liberator tail-gunner who raced with a left leg brace bolted to the clutch pedal, Modified champion, inaugural Strictly Stock/Cup champion, Hall of Famer, the list goes on.
After finishing third at Charlotte, he won the next race at Daytona Beach and ended his 1949 season with two wins and the title. He continued racing until health problems ended his career 1951, but remained involved in racing in the sports car world.[7]
He was preparing plans to start a sports car team when he suffered a fatal heart attack in his Chicago hotel room on November 11, 1960.[7] He is buried at Pinecrest Cemetery in Lake Worth, Florida, where his tombstone mentions his military service.
"Ironically, the man who had brought millions of hearts to the verge of failure in fans around the world, was sent through the rail for the last time by failure of his own heart," The Anniston Star's George Smith wrote a week after his passing.[8]
"The man who chose country over racing, and then racing over pain," ESPN's Ryan McGee wrote in his 2012 Veterans Day tribute to Byron. "American race fans continue to benefit from both."[7]
4. Sam Rice
J. Sam Rice ran just one more Strictly Stock race in his career: another fourth-place finish at Heidelberg Raceway.
That said, Rice was more well-known for his exploits outside of the cockpit. In 1947, Rice and his friend H. Clay Earles built Martinsville Speedway, with Rice serving as the first track president.[9] Rice also owned cars for a decade, fielding rides in the 1950s for those like Fireball Roberts and Bill Blair.[10]
Although Racing-Reference has a driver and owner page for Rice, they have different death dates thanks to some confusion in the comments on the former: the driver bio says he died on July 9, 1976, while the owner one says February 19, 2010 thanks to the wording of a News & Record article from that same date. Since he was born in 1904, he would have been 106 if he died in 2010 (while centenarians aren't that rare, one being such a prominent figure in NASCAR should have spawned at least some discussion), plus Find A Grave supports his death at the age of 72 in 1976.
5. Tim Flock
Fonty's younger brother, Tim Flock drove an Oldsmobile 88 that he borrowed from his recently-married neighbors in the race. He recalled in 1997:[11]
"They had thousands of people show up just to watch practice! That traffic was so bad and everybody was in it. You'd have race cars next to family cars, all jammed up, and the only reason you knew the difference between the racers and the regular people was that the racers had a number taped on their door. Like, a number made out of duct tape."
After his top five at Charlotte, he would enjoy a prolific career in the Grand National Series as he won 39 races and two series championships in 1952 and 1955. Of course, many also know him as the driver who had the monkey Jocko Flocko riding with him.
One of his race victories came at Road America in 1956. The race, which received the seal of approval from the FIA, drew plenty of attention as many wondered how stock cars would handle the road course; Lee Petty even remarked, "the way I figure it, this race will be won by the driver who can go the fastest the slowest."[12]
The reigning champion Flock tailed pole winner and points leader Buck Baker for much of the early stages, but as the race leaders began exiting with various issues (Baker ran out of fuel, Curtis Turner hit the hay bales after losing his brakes, Joe Weatherly suffered a rear end issue, and Speedy Thompson's engine failed), Flock found himself in front. He led the final ten laps to win what is currently the first and only Cup race at Road America.[12]
He continued to race until 1961. That year, he and Curtis Turner attempted to form a driver's union with the support of the Teamsters and Jimmy Hoffa, leading to their lifetime ban. While they were eventually reinstated, Flock was more than happy to continue his new life working at Charlotte Motor Speedway.[13]
Flock, a future NASCAR Hall of Famer, was diagnosed with throat cancer in February 1998. He died on March 31.[14] He is buried at Sunset Memory Gardens in Mint Hill, North Carolina.
6. Archie Smith
Archie Smith of Denton was a relatively new face in the field at Charlotte in 1949.[15] Still in his teens at the time, he received word of the race when he overheard a commercial on the radio.[16]
In a 2002 article by David Poole of The Charlotte Observer, Smith recalled:[16] "It cost $25 to enter. Nobody had that. I was working for 75 cents an hour and my daddy didn't want me to go. But he finally agreed to loan me the money.
"It was my personal car. We taped the headlights up and taped a number on the side. [...] We had to buckle the doors closed and we had to have a seat belt. I bought an old horse harness at the hardware for a seat belt and used a regular old leather belt around the doors so they wouldn't fly open."
Speaking of daddy, his father Frank Smith was also part of the starting lineup. Even before the race, the father and son duo were quick to try a different tactic from everyone else: the two went to the local airport and filled their cars with airplane fuel. When they were caught, they brushed the gas off as for the race.[16]
Shortly prior to the green flag, Smith's car failed to start, forcing him to call his friend on pit road to blow out the gas line before he could get going. He finished the race sixth; had he won, Smith remarked, "I probably would have stayed in [NASCAR]. I was as good as any of them, I thought."[16]
Smith ran just one more NASCAR race in his career, finishing tenth at that year's Martinsville event. He noted he didn't wear a helmet.[16]
Although he never stuck around in NASCAR, he continued racing in drag racing with General Motors and at Bowman Gray Stadium.[16]
He was the last living driver from the inaugural race, and is presumably still alive. An interview with him from 2012 can be watched here.
edit: Scratch that, he passed away last December
7. Sterling Long
Sterling Long ran three Strictly Stock/Grand National races, two in 1949 and one in 1950: after his seventh at Charlotte, he finished 28th and 26th at Occoneechee Speedway. The Charlotte Observer's August 9, 1950 issue had the following to say about his entry in that year's race:[17]
Sterling Long, Greensboro resident and formerly of Charlotte, today filed his entry for the 100-mile Grand National Circuit racae for late model automobiles slated for the fast Occoneechee one mile speedway Sunday afternoon.
Long will be driving a 1950 Hudson, the first Hudson entered for the speed classic being directed by Bill France under NASCAR sanction.
France anticipates a field of some 30 to 40 drivers for the big race, classed as Eastern North Carolina's biggest race of the season and one that may not be duplicated for years to come in the face of the present war crisis.
In his write-up on Racers Reunion, Tim Leeming wrote of Long's 26th-place run: "During the race, Sterling Long wrecked his Hudson in a spectacular series of flips but climbed from the destroyed car unhurt."[18]
According to Racing-Reference, he died on November 28, 1987, which would align with this Find A Grave memorial which adds he s buried in Soles Cemetery in Tabor City.
8. Slick Smith
How slick is Ebenezer "Slick" Smith? Slick enough to race in the Grand National Series for seven years, including much of the 1953 schedule, with 18 career top tens and a best finish of fourth at North Wilkesboro in 1954. A good number of his starts in both Grand National and Modifieds came in cars owned by fellow driver Frank Christian, usually running as teammates to Frank and his wife/fellow inaugural racer Sara.[19]
He also won a pole at Raleigh in 1953, prompting The Gaston Gazette's NASCAR This Week page to give him a shout-out in their 2006 season preview:[20]
Ever heard of Danny Weinberg? How about Slick Smith? Pat Kirkwood? All are among the 201 drivers who have won at least one pole in the history of NASCAR's premier series.
In 1950, Smith ran the North Wilkesboro race in a Nash Ambassador that was used by Bill France and Curtis Turner in the 1947 Carrera Panamericana. Nash, which eventually became part of American Motors Corporation after its parent Nash-Kelvinator merged with Hudson, was the first manufacturer to provide factory support in NASCAR.[21]
Racing-Reference says Smith died on January 27, 1997.
9. Curtis Turner
Like Byron, Curtis Turner probably doesn't need much of an introduction. A driver with a colorful and infamous reputation (most famously his then-lifetime ban in the 1961 for his efforts in forming a driver's union alongside Tim Flock), he missed out on the NASCAR title in 1949 but was voted Most Popular Driver and Most Outstanding Modified Driver.[22]
It's quite fitting that Turner finished next to Slick Smith; besides Smith driving Turner and France's Nash Ambassador at North Wilkesboro in 1950, Turner was responsible for Nash's lone NASCAR victory in 1951 at Charlotte.[21]
The 2016 NASCAR Hall of Fame inductee and golfer Clarence King were killed in a plane crash on October 4, 1970 in Pennsylvania; he was 46. Earlier, he had been participating in an exhibition race at Rockingham and was preparing for a special one-off return in the following week's National 500 at Charlotte.[23] Turner is buried at Blue Ridge Memorial Gardens in Roanoke, Virginia.
10. Jimmy Thompson
Even before the inaugural Strictly Stock race, Jimmy Thompson was on NASCAR's shit list. During the sanctioning body's early years, Bill France cracked down on various drivers like Thompson, Marshall Teague, Speedy Thompson, Ed Samples, and Buddy Shuman for various reasons; Teague, who was NASCAR's first treasurer in 1947, was banned after he and France got into arguments over changing the prize money from a flat amount to 40 percent of the gate receipts. Thompson drew France's wrath when he and Teague bailed on NASCAR events to compete in other series, while the other drivers (who also ran different series) all received suspensions when they were caught placing thumbtacks on the track before a Modified event.[10]
France's official reason for their blacklisting? "Conduct detrimental to the best interests of the National Association of Stock Car Racing." Sounds familiar, doesn't it?[10]
However, just days before the Strictly Stocks made their debut, the suspended drivers pleaded their cases to NASCAR commissioner Cannonball Baker and were reinstated. While the other drivers received fines and were placed on probation, Thompson was fully exonerated of any wrongdoing and allowed to race in NASCAR without any sanctions. Although the other four were allowed to race in the Strictly Stocks once they paid their fines, only Thompson would enter the race.[24]
After finishing tenth in at Charlotte, he would go on to race in the Grand National Series until 1962, recording ten top tens and two top fives in 47 career races. One of his starts came in the first Daytona 500; considering the size of the new Daytona International Speedway, Thompson reportedly remarked: "There have been tracks that separated the men from the boys. But this is the track that will separate the weak from the strong long after the boys have gone home!"[25]
Just two years after ending his career, Thompson died of a heart attack in his North Carolina home on September 26, 1964.[25] His grave in Lakeland Memorial Park mentions his naval service during World War II.
11. Buck Baker
The 1956 and 1957 Grand National champion, Charlotte bus driver Buck Baker was one of the era's greatest drivers. A 46-time race winner, he was inducted into the NASCAR Hall of Fame in 2013.
In 1949, Baker was chasing the Modified title, but entering the Strictly Stock race, he was quite a distance from points leader Fonty Flock. While Flock led with 1,187, Baker had fallen to seventh with 447.5 after losing sixth to Frank Mundy at Martinsville.[4] He also ran for the National Stock Car Championship, where he finished fourth in points behind Ed Samples, Curtis Turner, and Jack Smith.[26]
Four years after the Charlotte race, Baker and some others leased the legendary Air Base Speedway, whose lone Grand National race was won by inaugural Strictly Stock pole sitter Bob Flock.[27]
Baker died on April 16, 2002 at Carolinas Medical Center while having a procedure done for his pacemaker; he was 83.[28] His gravestone at Magnolia Memorial Gardens keeps it simple: A True Champion.
"Throughout the entire racing world, I don't know of anybody who would said he didn't give 110 percent from the time they dropped the green flag until the time the race was over," son Buddy Baker said. "He was that same way in life, too."[28]
12. Bill Blair
Like many of his fellow drivers, Bill Blair got his start as a moonshine runner in the 1930s. In 1939, he began racing at the newly-constructed High Point Speedway, and he opened his own track Tri-City Speedway after World War II.[29][30]
A friend of Bill France, Blair drove the other Lincoln Cosmopolitan from Millard Clothier at Charlotte. He dominated much of the race as he led 145 laps, but fell out of contention when one of his pit crew members removed the radiator cap, while efforts to solve the issue with cold water led to the thermostat housing cracking. He finished 12th.[3]
Blair enjoyed a fairly successful career in the Grand National Series during the 1950s as he won three races, including a 1953 victory at Daytona Beach.
He died on November 2, 1995.
13. Jack Smith
A decade after running the first Strictly Stock race, Jack Smith won the Grand National Most Popular Driver Award; although he tied Junior Johnson in the voting, a second ballot allowed him to edge Johnson out.[31]
Smith, who began racing in 1947 after building his own car, would enjoy a successful career in NASCAR's top level. From 1949 to his final season 1964, he won 21 races and finishes in the top five in points three times. The Georgia native also had a bit of an odd relationship with Darlington Raceway, where his car flipped out of the track and into the parking lot in 1954, "set the new speed record for driving sideways" in 1956, and once again flew out of the speedway in 1958.[32]
In 1960, he formed a close partnership with Bud Moore, and the two became the first duo to communicate via two-way radio.[32]
Son Jackie said the following about his father: "Daddy raced in the rough and tough days. He was a man's man. He drove hard. He had broad shoulders, big arms. They raced and they fought back then."[33]
"Jack was a hell of a competitor," Moore added. "Jack was a good race driver back in his day. In his time, he was about as good as any of them that come along."[33]
Smith died on October 17, 2001 of congestive heart failure.
14. Sara Christian
As mentioned in Slick Smith's segment, Sara Christian was the wife of Frank Christian. Sara's racing backstory is rather unknown, but it's inferred that she cut her teeth in women-only races called "Powder Puff Derbies" before diving into the NASCAR world with her husband.[34]
Nicknamed "The Country's Leading Woman Stock Car Driver",[11] Sara drove a Ford owned by Frank at Charlotte.[35] To quote The Charlotte Observer's qualifying report:[36]
A feminine complexion was added for today's 150-mile strictly stock car classic at the New Charlotte Speedway when Sara Christian, attractive Atlanta woman driver, was granted permission to test her skill against the male speedsters and verified her qualifications by qualifying 13th in the starting field today.
[...]
Mrs. Christian is not a newcomer in stock car racing. In fact, the Atlanta woman has a modified stock car in which he has used to compete with men in other races, and her entry yesterday was not altogether a surprise when Race Director Bill France granted permission for her to try her skill in the long test. This, however, will definitely be her first test in long distance racing, but she was anything but afraid when she zoomed her entry around the trick track yesterday.
Mid-race, she was replaced by pole sitter Bob Flock after the latter's engine failed.[35]
Being the lone female driver in the inaugural race, it goes without saying that Christian is NASCAR's first woman driver, but it wouldn't take long for others to also come aboard. She was joined by Ethel Mobley and Louise Smith for the following race at Daytona Beach.[37]
Christian only ran six more Grand National races in her career, with six in 1949. Regardless, she scored two top tens, including a fifth at Heidelberg, both during the first season. At the end of 1949, she was named Woman of the Year by the United States Drivers Association.[35]
She died on March 7, 1980 at 61. She is buried at Pleasant Grove United Methodist Church Cemetery in Dahlonega, Georgia.
15. John Barker
Barker, of Hickory, North Carolina, is the only driver in this field to not have any sort of biographical information on Racing-Reference.
Anyway, he finished 15th in a 1947 Kaiser owned by Ralph Chaney. Chaney would eventually field cars for Barker in three races in 1951, where his best finish was 12th at Martinsville. Barker had seven Grand National starts that year, including four with Leo Sigman in a Studebaker.[10]
Since no info on his birth and death dates are available, it can only be assumed that he is probably dead until proven otherwise.
16. Jimmie Lewallen
He might not be the greatest Jimmie in NASCAR history, but Jimmie Lewallen certainly had quite a role in it. A former moonshine runner and good friend of Bill Blair,[38] he was part of a 12-driver group who met with Bill France at the Rex Hotel in Atlanta on October 12, 1947 to write up the initial plans for NASCAR.[39] France even offered Lewallen a chance to "buy into NASCAR" for $500, which he rejected as he felt "it would never amount to anything."[40]
Even outside of the racing world, Lewallen was a decorated man; before helping in NASCAR's creation, he was a veteran of the Normandy invasion as he served in General George Patton's Third Army, where he was wounded twice and received the Purple Heart, Silver Star, and Bronze Star.[39]
"Huge Foot", as he was nicknamed,[38] would race in Grand National in the 1950s and much of the Convertible Division in 1956, where he finished eleventh in points. Although he never won a race in either series, he enjoyed success in modified and sportsman series, including winning the 1950 Modified title at Bowman Gray.[40]
Lewallen died on October 16, 1995 at a Winston-Salem hospital after a battle with cancer.[39] He is buried at Springfield Friends Meeting House Cemetery in High Point, North Carolina.
17. Lee Petty
Ah, Lee Petty. Hall of Famer, father of The King, inaugural Daytona 500 winner, leader of Petty Enterprises, the list goes on.
We all know Petty's story, so let's just focus on how he did in the summer of '49. Lee and 12-year-old Richard reached Charlotte Speedway in a 1948 Buick Roadmaster, which was also Lee's car of choice for the race for various reasons like size and an engine that was likely going to work quite nicely in the dirt. Said car was also not actually his, instead belonging to his neighbor Gilmer Goode who was willing to lend it to him assuming the prize money could pay off any damages.
Well, Lee ended up wrecking the car. As Richard explained in Ryan McGee's article on the race:[11]
"People complain about the traffic over there when they are trying to get to the airport," says Richard Petty. "But they should have been with us when we were trying to get to that racetrack in 1949. You might want to check and see, because I'm pretty sure there are probably some folks still stuck down there."
[...]
"This was the first real stock car race, you see," Richard Petty explains. "Daddy wanted to make sure he was going to be a part of that. And he really wanted to make sure he got a part of that $6,000 purse."
[...]
Barely half the field made it to the race's halfway mark. That's when Lee Petty lost control of his borrowed Buick and barrel-rolled it through the third turn.
"My first thought was, 'I hope Daddy is OK,'" Richard remembers. "Then my second thought was, 'Oh, man, how are we gonna get home?'"
[...]
"When we got home that night, all I could think about was the future," Richard Petty says. "I was wondering where all this might go and I was hoping that maybe the Petty family could go along with it, and we did."
The kid who became King winks.
"But first we had to go tell Gilmer Goode that we had wrecked his car."
Petty died on April 5, 2000 at the Moses Cone Hospital, where he had been staying after underoing surgery for a stomach aneurysm. His passing came just three days after great-grandson Adam made his Cup debut at Texas Motor Speedway.[41] He is buried at Level Cross United Methodist Church Cemetery in Randleman, North Carolina.
18. Skimp Hersey
I'll say this in advance: Skimp Hersey has probably the darkest bio of any of the drivers here.
Hailing from Florida, Hersey was a fast but unlucky driver. Although he had his race wins like a NASCAR Modified victory at Jacksonville, he received the nickname "Hard Luck Kid" in 1948 since he regularly found himself in wrecks. Despite his inconsistent finishes, his fortunes took a turn for the better during the 1949 NASCAR season, and he was eventually one of the first to race at Charlotte Speedway.[42] Of course, he would later run the first Strictly Stock event at the track.
Fast forward to June 12, 1950, when Hersey was competing in a 100-mile National Stock Car Racing Association (NSCRA) Modified race at Lakewood Speedway in Atlanta.[43][44]
Lakewood Speedway was not a forgiving race track. Besides various deaths, the previous year's NSCR race saw four different drivers get sent to the hospital for injuries in wrecks. Additionally, if you were going to race at Lakewood, it was imperative that you keep an extra gas can in your car; true to its name, Lakewood had a literal lake as its "infield", meaning any driver who ran out of fuel on the backstretch was basically stuck there for the rest of the race with no way to get back to pit road. As such, drivers kept the fuel can to make brief refuels when they were running low.[43]
Anyway, Hersey's car got loose in turn one and rolled, hitting the fence.[44] The gas can in the car lost its lid during the roll, causing the cockpit to be coated in fuel. After landing in front of the stands, the car went up in flames. Five minutes later, Hersey crawled out of the burning car and sat by the wreck as he called for help).[43] However, fire crews had to wait for the other drivers to stop before they could get to him.[44] In the meantime, a newspaper photographer arrived on the scene... to take photos. Despite Hersey's pleas, the photographer continued his work. Police had to escort him from the track as they expected the fans to attack him for not doing anything.[43]
Once the firemen finally arrived, all of Hersey's clothes but his underwear had been burned off. He was transported to Grady Hospital but died the next day. He was 37.[43]
The race was called off after 81 laps and Jack Smith was declared the winner.[44]
Hersey is buried at Evergreen Cemetery in his hometown of St. Augustine, Florida.
19. Bob Smith
Considering how common of a name Bob Smith is, it probably comes with no shock that it took quite the digging to find anything.
Anyway, he had four career starts in 1949 and 1950, including the first Southern 500 in 1950 (officially the Southern Five Hundred). Incidentally, assuming they aren't the same person, the Radford, Virginia native was actually the second Bob Smith at newly-Darlington Raceway as the track's PR head also had the same name.[45]
In regards to the 1949 Charlotte race, Smith was third-fastest after the first wave of qualifying, tailing Red Byron and Curtis Turner.[24] After ultimately starting seventh, he ended his day in 19th.[36][1]
Per RR, he died on February 26, 1997.
20. Otis Martin
Otis Martin of Roanoke, Virginia qualified sixth at Charlotte in his 1949 Ford, right in front of Bob Smith.[36] He finished 20th due to overheating issues.[1]
Nicknamed "Bib Overalls" since he raced while wearing the attire in question, Martin was considered a bit of a mountain man. He later ran the Martinsville race that year, but finished last, and would contest 23 series races in his career until 1954 with a best run of sixth at Charlotte in 1953. His final NASCAR start came in the 1954 Southern 500.[46] Heck, he was even a survivor of the infamous 1949 Lakewood Speedway race mentioned earlier.[47]
However, Martin died in a car accident on November 21, 1955; ironically, Virginia had just begun a three-week period of promoting safe driving. He was 37. The Associated Press wrote the following:
A 37-year-old Henry County man was killed in an auto crash today a little more than three hours after the start of a three-week safe driving period. The first in the state for that period—and four others over the week-end boosted Virginia's 1955 traffic toll to 770—86 higher than the same time last year.
Otis Mason Martin of Rt. 1, Martinsville, was killed in a single-vehicle crash on State Rt. 57, 1½ miles east of Stanleytown at 3:10 a. m.
Safe Driving Day is Dec. 1. States and communities were asked to keep accident records for 10-day periods before and after that date for comparative purposes.
A comment on his RR bio claiming to be his oldest son added:
Otis was killed in a car wreck on Rte 57 near his hometown of Bassett Va Nov 21,1955.
He was driving a 1955 Ford Fairlane with a 1952 Chrysler Hemi-Head Engine. The accident was caused by the driveshaft separating from The transmission,digging into the pavement and catapulting the vehicle into several flips. Two passengers in the car survived the accident with only minor injuries.
21. Frank Smith
Father of Archie, Frank Smith supposedly did not actually run the race; according to his son, he let Jimmy Thompson drive his car at the last second. Either way, Archie maintains he and his dad were the first fatheson team in NASCAR history.[16]
Frank later ran the Occoneechee Speedway race, where he finished 14th.
After a lot of confusion in RR's comments, it appears he died on March 29, 1957 at the age of 55.
22. Bill Snowden
Like Skimp Hersey, Bill Snowden hailed from St. Augustine, Florida. During the 1949 season, he raced for the NASCAR Modified title, where he was hanging in ninth at the time of the Strictly Stock debut.[4]
Nicknamed "Wild Bill", Snowden was a fan favorite in his home state and outside.[49] Considered the "hottest of the hot stock car pilots in the nation" by The Orlando Sentinel in 1951,[50] he ran 25 Grand National races between 1949 and 1952 with top tens in 14. He was even nominated by the Florida Sports Writers Association as one of the biggest contributors to pro sports in 1950, alongside the likes of Bill France and future Baseball Hall of Fame manager Al López.[51]
Besides driving, Snowden also dabbed in team ownership, fielding rides for the likes of Curtis Turner and Fireball Roberts.[49][52]
After retiring from racing, he became a shrimp boat operator. He died at his home on February 2, 1959.[53]
23. Jim Paschal
Jim Paschal, who retired from the Charlotte race for overheating issues and hung out in the top 15 for the 1949 points standings,[54] was a nominee for the 2020 NASCAR Hall of Fame class. While he wasn't one of the inductees, he enjoyed a solid and long career that saw him race across the Grand National era and into the Winston Cup name.[55]
From 1949 to 1972, he recorded 25 race wins and 230 top tens in 421 races, a nearly 55 percent top-ten rate. A short track master, all but two of his victories came on such courses.[55] Despite his short track success, Paschal noted he "didn't have any track mastered, but I had awfully good luck at Nashville. I won three races in a row there."
The two non-short track victories came in the World 600 in 1964 and 1967; his 1967 win saw him lead 335 of 400 laps, setting a race record that stood until Martin Truex Jr. smashed it in 2016.[55] When he was inducted into the NMPA Hall of Fame in 1977, Paschal recalled:[56]
"It was the kind of race that when you think about it, it brings a smile to your face. The press wrote that it was tires that helped me win that race and they were right. But none of them knew the trouble we went to to get the tires that we ran.
"The tires that we selected to run weren't supposed to be the fast type. But we found out that they were only three to four hundredths of a second off the real fast tires -- and the tires we picked would last. The others would not. We and Goodyear were calling all over the place to try and get a full set. We would get one tire here, another tire there. We had tires coming in from everywhere. We didn't have enough tires to run the race until the morning of the race."
A modest man, Paschal was held in high regard by his peers. Richard Petty considered him a top-ten greatest driver in Cup history:[56]
"Jim was a natural. Driving was just easy for him. He ranks as one of the best of all-time on my list."
Pascal was also quite surprised by Petty's comment. I didn't figure anything like being inducted into the Hall of Fame would happen to me and I didn't figure anything like what Richard said about me would happen. To be considered one of the 10 best of all time was really a surprise."
After retiring, Paschal owned a trucking business alongside Modified driver Max Berrier.[56] He died of cancer on July 5, 2004; he was 77.[57] Paschal is buried at North Bend Cemetery in Jackson Creek, North Carolina.
"I'm not a hero," Paschal once said after his NMPA Hall of Fame induction.[56] "I have not done anything along these lines. I don't understand it. I thought the Hall of Fame was for heroes.
"I didn't really think I would be elected to it. That's why this means so much to me."
24. B.E. Renfro
The #1 driver to drive #1 came in Race #1 with B.E. Renfro (no relation to Randy Renfrow). Only ran two Strictly Stock races with a 17th at Occoneechee.
However, since he went by initials, I had a hard time figuring out his full name and his identity. As such, I eventually gave up and will default to his RR: died on May 27, 2001.
25. Fred Johnson
In May 1949, Fred Johnson of Hamptonville joined Bill France and NASCAR at the newly-opened Charlotte Speedway alongside fellow Johnson and North Wilkesboro native George Johnson.[58] A month later, Fred would be the only Johnson running the inaugural Strictly Stock race at the track. In doing so, Fred connected a piece of NASCAR history to one of the sport's greatest names: Junior Johnson.[59]
After growing up in the bootlegging business, brothers Fred and Junior got into racing.[59] Although Fred would only run seven career Grand National races (scoring two top tens) with Junior obviously being the more iconic brother, the two of them worked together and competed with one another. In 1955, the pair teamed up under B&L Motors with Junior in an Oldsmobile and Fred a Cadillac; such cars were even switched between the two during the season.[60]
Even out of the car, Fred worked with Junior Johnson & Associates as a farm manager. He died on January 7, 1991 and is interred at Pleasant Grove Baptist Church Cemetery in Ronda, North Carolina.[61]
26th to 33rd in a comment below (damn you, character limit)
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